Rita Wood : Romanesque Sculpture

Rita Wood is an independent researcher concentrating on the interpretation of Romanesque sculpture in England and working to an academic standard. Her first paper was published in 1994, and since 1995 she has been a fieldworker for the Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain and Ireland, recording sites in the West and East Ridings of Yorkshire. For that project, see www.crsbi.ac.uk.

1 Author's Introduction
2 List of Articles in order of appearance; Books
3 Amendments and Afterthoughts
4 Index to Articles
5 Offprints, downloads or read-on-line


Author's Introduction

Having published about 40 papers in diverse archaeological journals since 1994, I am hoping to make them more widely known through this web-site. Continuous observation and reflection have produced a collection of related studies; the experience of each site studied has shaped the perception of those following. Interpretations have been progressively refined, and favoured themes of the period discovered. The papers may be of interest to foreign readers, as they not only discuss two examples of early Romanesque sculpture on the continent, at Dijon and at Jelling, but also a sample of the post-Conquest Romanesque sculpture of England and Wales.

My first book, Romanesque Yorkshire, was something I had long wanted to write as the particularly rich range of sculpture that exists in Yorkshire is not well known outside the county, nor from place to place within it. Themes and motifs of Romanesque sculpture as found in Britain are common throughout the Christian West, and the antiquity of these themes and of the method of teaching by condensed imagery and animal symbols is already discernible in sculpture at Dijon (c.1010; paper 23) and Jelling (c.965; paper 32). My second book, Paradise: the World of Romanesque Sculpture, looks round Europe and offers a new and rational interpretation of the plentiful background sculpture which is often described as decoration (or worse), or dismissed as meaningless; it is suggested that the Gregorian reforms promoted sculpture as a medium for teaching the laity.

The findings have fully justified my earliest assumption that the sculpture was primarily a visual aid, but my study was undertaken without academic oversight, in ignorance of customary research techniques and without a grounding in standard art history. These deficiencies were positively advantageous in allowing me to avoid mistaken assumptions and well-worn routines, but there are, no doubt, omissions and faults of which I am still unaware.

Although I had no conventional training for this work, my background has included continuous practical experience of making art from an early age, a degree in geography and economic history, employment in a publisher's editorial office and marriage to an Anglican priest, all of which have been relevant. It was our days out in Yorkshire and Peter's appointment as vicar of Riccall in the East Riding ("Oooh, its doorway's in Pevsner!") that watered the seed of these papers; his retirement and early death that allowed space for them to grow. The fact that we never had a car meant that visiting every site in the study region - the standard preparation for a doctoral student - was not possible for me. My research has almost always concentrated on one site at a time and, preferably, on a site accessible by public transport. This favoured a different emphasis in my approach to the sculpture, a focus on the integrity of the individual site rather than on collecting comparisons far and wide.

I am glad to record my great debt to Professor George Zarnecki and to Deirdre Mortimer, then Assistant Librarian at the Minster Library, York, for their vision, kindness and encouragement when my art-historical curiosity was in a rudimentary state. The annual International Medieval Congress at Leeds was my education for many years. Currently, I associate more with archaeologists, but this sculpture should be known more widely still.

e-mail: isarita2003@yahoo.co.uk

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List of Publications


1 'The Romanesque doorways of Yorkshire, with special reference to that at St Mary's church, Riccall' Yorkshire Archaeological Journal [YAJ] 66 (1994) 59-90.
Yorkshire parish churches have an unequalled series of twelfth-century doorways that have been neglected by researchers. Close examination of some 30 doorways with figurative sculpture provides evidence of the organisation of their making, which roughly speaking changed from direction by religious designers in the first half of the century to composition by freelance travelling craftsmen in the 1160s. The subjects shown are basically those met with in French Romanesque sculpture, with local additions.


2 'The Romanesque doorway at Foston church', Yorkshire Philosophical Society Annual Report for the year 1996, (1997) 67-75.
A small doorway, having a scheme of 9 carvings with teaching for a lifetime. Some unusual imagery, and some shared subjects.


3 'Malmesbury Abbey: the sculpture of the south entrance', Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History Magazine 91 (1998) 42-56.
There are sufficient links with the Order of Cluny to suggest that it was the arrival of Abbot Peter Moraunt and his train c.1141 that made possible the conception of the scheme for the porch entrance. Manuscripts in the abbey's library may have fired their imagination to produce this particular plan, which united their Cluniac past with the Anglo-Saxon past of Malmesbury. There is evidence that influences from here were transferred to Yorkshire in the late 1150s.


4 'Real people in English Romanesque sculpture', Medieval Life 11 (Summer 1999), 8-15. Most Romanesque art pictures a timeless spiritual condition by symbolism, and is often assumed to be unapproachable by the fast-moving scientific modern world, though the vigorous texture of jostling lions, dragons and foliage has a certain appeal. Just occasionally, however, twelfth-century sculpture shows people of the period in actual situations, and this may allow us to appreciate something of an apparently alien world.


5 'The Romanesque Doorway at Fishlake'. YAJ 72 (2000), 17-39.
The paper describes the display at Fishlake, suggests an interpretation of it and briefly relates the scheme to its immediate sources.


6 'Before the Green Man', Medieval Life 14 (Autumn 2000), 8-13.
From about the end of the twelfth century a human head dissolving into foliage - nowadays described as the 'Green Man' - began to be carved in churches in northern Europe. Leaves arise imperceptibly from all parts of the surface of the face, and they are occasionally emitted from the mouth or the nostrils as well. The typical Green Man is more greenery than anything else, and a characteristic product of Gothic woodcarvers and sculptors. The wonderful proficiency of the craftsmen in this period enabled them to reproduce and then develop their model, which was the classical or Eastern motif of a foliage mask.


7 'Two lions at Milborne Port', Somerset Archaeology & Natural History 141 (1998) 1-15.
This paper explores the twelfth-century sculpture at Milborne Port from several directions, combining close consideration of the work itself with a variety of contemporary evidence. Tentative suggestions are made as to the meaning of the tympanum and the nature of the original scheme for the building.


8 'The Lions in the crypt of Canterbury cathedral', Archaeologia Cantiana, cxx (2000) 386-393. This short note discusses two carvings: a double-bodied lion standing over a chalice, and another lion. The author suggests both are grinning.


9 'The Romanesque Memorial at Conisbrough', YAJ 73 (2001), 41-60.
The individuality of the memorial at Conisbrough is emphasised by comparison with others of its period. The symbolism of the carvings is discussed. Finally, it is suggested that the memorial commemorated the third Earl de Warenne.


10 'Geometric Patterns in English Romanesque sculpture' Journal of the British Archaeological Association 154 (2001) 1-39.
Patterns are often seen on the doorways of village churches and may be used throughout greater churches and in secular buildings. Pattern-making was typical of traditional art, while geometry, symmetry and order were considered by theologians to reflect heavenly perfection. It is suggested that geometric patterns, sometimes described as rosettes, diaper, zigzag, scale and arcading, were used in English Romanesque sculpture in a coherent series to build up a cosmographic diagram. The comprehensive building programme that followed the Conquest allowed the language of geometric patterns to be used more intensively in England than appears to have been the case on the continent. Evidence for the suggested interpretations is drawn from a variety of sources but the placing of one pattern relative to another and to any figurative sculpture is always an important consideration.


11 'The Augustinians and the Romanesque sculpture at Kirkburn church', East Yorkshire Historian 4 (2003) 3-59.
Sculpture at Kirkburn church dates from about 1140. It occurs chiefly on corbels, doorway, and font, and ranges from pre-Conquest patterns to individualised figures. There are common, and not so common, motifs, the interpretation of which opens a window onto the pastoral activity of Augustinian canons throughout the Yorkshire Wolds in the first half of the twelfth century. Other topics discussed include a suggested theme for corbel-table sculpture generally, and the individual carving at Westow. The paper touches on the question of the resettlement of the Wolds after the wastage recorded in Domesday Book, and on the production of the Augustinian illuminated texts of the later twelfth and early thirteenth centuries.


12 'The Romanesque Tomb-slab at Bridlington Priory', YAJ 75 (2003), 63-76.
The slab is compared with various other Tournai marble slabs and fonts in England. The four motifs - symmetrical wyverns, a building, the fable of the Fox and Crane, a lion - are interpreted. Lastly, it is suggested that the slab was ordered by the priory to commemorate the founder, Walter de Gant.


13 'Not Roman but Romanesque: a decayed relief at Conisbrough', YAJ 76 (2004), 95-111. The relief shows a figure seated under a round-headed arch. It resembles Romano-British monuments, but several features link it to twelfth-century sculpture in Yorkshire and to examples at sites further afield with Cluniac connections. A Romanesque context for the relief is suggested. A postscript considers the relationship of some Romanesque stone sculpture in the county to contemporary work in wood.


14 'The Romanesque font at St Marychurch, Torquay', Devon Archaeological Society Proceedings, 62 (2004), 79-98.
The font has survived an eventful modern history, and there are some indications of its beginnings too. The motifs used in its seven medallions combine to make a basic teaching programme for unlettered villagers. Comparisons for the individual motifs are widespread, and this suggests that the subjects carved and their forms may have been available from some wider network or authority within the 12th-century Church.


15 A few pages in Early Sculptures in Burnsall Church, with E. Coatsworth and L. A. S. Butler, Burnsall 2005.
Burnsall church, Yorkshire, has a font, corbel and various grave-slabs of Romanesque period.


16 'The Romanesque doorway at Healaugh church', Yorkshire Philosophical Society Annual Report for the year 2005 (2006) 55-65.
There is more to see here than the doorway, but this was a short paper. The sculpture on the doorway is easily divisible in a symmetrical manner into distinct passages, each with its own characteristic motifs. The theme is the Second Coming. Spanish illuminated manuscripts may have been one source.


17 'The Romanesque church at Melbourne', Derbyshire Archaeological Journal 126 (2006), 127-168.
The parish church of Melbourne is a satisfying building, but also something of an enigma: historians have no date for the Romanesque construction and no word of its intended function. Architectural style suggests a date of around 1120, and it is thus likely that the patron was Henry I. In such distinctive surroundings, the sculpture cannot be inconsequential and should tell us something, and the building itself, with its discrete and uncommon spaces, a little more. It is suggested that the royal church was built to be served by an unrecorded Augustinian community, and that the canons were engaged in training entrants for a pastoral ministry.


18 'The Romanesque chancel arch at Liverton, YAJ 78 (2006), 111-143)
The chancel arch capitals, with carving of figures, foliage and both real and imaginary animals, embody a unified teaching scheme based on two sermons of St Augustine of Hippo. This scheme covers the Fall, the Incarnation and Christian life here and hereafter. It is likely to have been designed by an Augustinian based, at least temporarily, at Guisborough Priory. Comparisons are made with sculpture locally, in other parts of the county, at Tutbury in Staffordshire and even as far away as Milan. The crane and wyverns are among motifs discussed.


19 'The Romanesque tympanum at Fownhope, Herefordshire and the functioning of the Herefordshire School of Romanesque Sculpture'. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club 53 (2007), 51-76.
The tympanum reset inside the church of St. Mary, Fownhope, is a work of the Herefordshire School, or School of the Welsh Marches. It was almost certainly part of the 12th-century church of which the central tower remains in situ. The carving can be understood as a vision of heaven and alludes to several important themes: the Throne of Wisdom, the Tree of Life, the Water of Life, and the Trinity. As a consequence of the intellectual complexity of the content, a search for its clerical author leads to the suggestion that Augustinians or Victorines were involved in designing for the Herefordshire School. Comparisons are made with sculpture at Kilpeck, at St. Nicholas's church, Gloucester and at Elkstone (Gloucestershire), also at Rock (Worcestershire).


20 'St Gwynllyw's cathedral, Newport: the Romanesque Archway', Archaeologia Cambrensis 155 (2006), 163-185. Co-authored with Jeremy Knight. Appeared Dec. 2007
From east to west, St Gwynllyw's cathedral (now Anglicised to 'St Woolos') comprises four architectural elements - a modern chancel of 1960-64, designed for the liturgical needs of the newly-elevated cathedral of the diocese of Monmouth; a Romanesque nave with enlarged aisles and a large south porch added by the Stafford Dukes of Buckingham between 1424 and 1483; a western chapel of thirteenth-century date communicating with the nave through a Romanesque arch, and a west tower attributed to Jasper Tudor, lord of Newport from 1485 to 1495. This paper is concerned with the arch between the nave and the western chapel and with the carvings on the capitals above the two re-used Roman columns incorporated in it.


21 'The Occupatio of St Odo of Cluny and the porch sculpture at Malmesbury Abbey', Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, 102 (2009), 202-210.
A specific link has been identified between the 12th-century sculpture on the south porch at Malmesbury Abbey and the Occupatio, a 10th-century poem by Odo of Cluny: in a rare departure from tradition, the poem uses Hercules subduing Cerberus as a type of Christ harrowing Hell, and the sculpture illustrates this particular Labour. With a full translation of the Occupatio made available to me by Peter L. Wood, additional comments can be made on the editing of the poem for the sculptural scheme, and examples are given of 10th-century imagery that is recognisable in 12th-century sculpture generally.


22 'The Romanesque Doorway at St Padarn's church, Llanbadarn Fawr, Radnorshire', Archaeologia Cambrensis, 156 (2007), 51-72. With contribution by Dr David Stephenson, Bangor. 2009.
The Victorian building retains the early twelfth-century doorway from a medieval church on this site. The doorway is very like those seen at churches across the English midlands, yet one capital has figures which, arguably, represent an episode from the life of St Padarn, the Celtic saint of mid-Wales. The circumstances that might have enabled such a combination are examined.


23 'The two major capitals in the crypt of Saint-Bénigne at Dijon', The Antiquaries' Journal 89 (2009, published on the internet in May, paper journal in October), 215-239.
The three-storey rotunda at Dijon, built by William of Volpiano and consecrated in 1018, has been reduced to its crypt, but an impressive pair of capitals survive adjacent to the burial place of St Bénigne. In modern times these capitals have repeatedly been described as full of monsters, and their significance for Romanesque sculpture has consequently been neglected. Enough remains of their dense, three-dimensional sculpture for them to be identified as representing, in fact, a lesson commonly read in masses for the dead. Numerous saints and martyrs were marked by burials in the crypt or by altars in the rotunda. All Saints' Day was celebrated on 1 November, so that the main feast day of St Bénigne was transferred to 2 November. About 998, the commemoration of All Souls, also on 2 November, had been introduced by Odilo, Abbot of Cluny, and is likely to have been adopted by Abbot William. The text from 1 Thessalonians suggests the imaginative use of the rotunda's vertical dimension, at this particular season and others.


24 'Augustinians and pastoral work: the evidence in sculpture', Monastic Research Bulletin 15 (2009), 37-41.
Summary of papers involving Augustinian programmes; their use to historians.


25 'The Norman Chapel in Durham Castle', Northern History XLVII/1 (2010), 9-48.
The Latin description by Laurence of Durham, and the surviving fabric, witness that the present chapel is the late-eleventh-century bishop's chapel, with no other chapel above it at that period. The numerous sculptural motifs - men, stars and foliage; hunting scenes; lions, a serpent, an ox and a mermaid - individually offer teaching about heaven and, together, they suggest the positions taken up by various groups of people during a mass. The arrangement of sculpture in other architecturally-undivided interiors is compared: in the chapel in the White Tower, at St Peter's, Northampton, and in the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral. The chapel makes several references to Rome, and may have been modelled on a Roman basilica. It is suggested that the chapel and its sculpture were a personal project of Bishop William of St Calais.


26 'A Romanesque corbel at Kildwick church, North Yorkshire' a communication, YAJ 81 (2009), 355-56.


27 'The Romanesque doorways at Dinton and Leckhampstead', Records of Buckinghamshire 51 (2011), 139-168.
The doorway at Dinton has much enjoyable sculpture and, unusually, an inscription which explains the meaning of the strange animals and their surroundings. This suggests that a specialist designer, a cleric, had arranged the imagery in order to teach the people. The designer's ultimate written sources were Revelation and the Moralia in Job of Gregory the Great. The animals in the tympanum - combinations of lion and snake - and the snakes and men's heads elsewhere, speak of spiritual life here and hereafter. By the use of emotive patterning and the depiction of a familiar altar cross, the designer encouraged the onlookers to hope for heaven for themselves. A doorway at Leckhampstead, though of different appearance, was designed with similar teaching content, and made by some of the same craftsmen. Further related sculpture has been identified at Quenington and South Cerney in Gloucestershire; the connection was very probably made through the patronage of the sisters Agnes de Munchesney and Cecily, countess of Hereford. The tympana at Dinton and Leckhampstead make use of two different compositions which occur at a total of 13 churches in Britain, and the final sections of the paper discuss the transmission of shared designs for doorway sculpture in the first half of the 12th century.


28 'The Augustinians and the Romanesque Font from Everingham, East Riding', YAJ, 83 (2011), 112-47.
The font is thought to be in the United States. It is one of the more elaborate examples in a group of over fifty cylindrical fonts in the East Riding which date from the first half of the twelfth century. Its apparently unorganized imagery is found to embody a teaching scheme reminiscent of methods described in St. Augustine of Hippo's manual for instructing baptism candidates, and the design seems to be based on a text of Hugh of St. Victor, from his moral interpretation of Noah's Ark. It is suggested that an Augustinian canon designed the scheme even though Everingham church did not belong to the order. This inference leads to a discussion of the pastoral work of the Augustinian canons in the East Riding in the early twelfth century. Motifs on a font at Bessingby (East Riding), on tympana at Ribbesford (Worcestershire) and Stoke-sub-Hamdon (Somerset), and at various other sites provide comparisons.


29 'The Romanesque doorway at Little Langford', Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, 105 (2012), 145-156.
The doorway has the only surviving sculpture from the village church of Little Langford of the first half of the 12th century. The carving in the tympanum and lintel is still clear, but the capitals are worn, broken and coated by lichens, making their subjects uncertain, though it is possible to offer a reconstruction of their original appearance, and hence also of their content. The teaching displayed on the tympanum, lintel and capitals is linked to their relative position on the doorway. Similarly, the content of other sculpture discussed is related to its place in the building.


30 'The church of St Edith, Bishop Wilton, East Riding: a sympathetic nineteenth century restoration allows an interpretation of the Romanesque sculpture', YAJ, 84 (2012), 77-119.
The church at Bishop Wilton is a 'Sykes church', rebuilt and restored in 1858–59 in Gothic style: only the south doorway and chancel arch have sculpture of twelfth-century date, though some chancel windows probably contain original stonework. Despite the amount of new carving evident
in the doorway and chancel arch, there are reasons for believing that the restoration was a cautious one, and that what is now seen reproduces, unusually faithfully, the original state of these archways. This being so, an interpretation of the sculptural programmes of both doorway and chancel arch has been attempted. The manor and church belonged to the archbishop of York, and the plentiful patterns and motifs suggest an eclectic 'Yorkshire School' context that echoes his wide contacts in the region; there are parallels at Healaugh, Barton-le-Street, Riccall, Stillingfleet and elsewhere. It is suggested that the theme of the doorway, with its combination of moral teaching and a vision of 'the appearing of Jesus Christ', was taken from the First Epistle of Peter.


31 'The Romanesque sculpture at Adel church, West Riding - a suggested interpretation', YAJ, 85 (2013), 97-130.
Adel church belonged to Holy Trinity Priory in York, a dependency of Marmoutier abbey, near Tours. The simple building has plentiful sculpture on corbels, doorway and gable, and chancel arch; the programme illustrates the Second Coming of Christ (outside) and the general resurrection (inside). The entrance has suffered from weathering, but is still largely legible; it includes some novelties among its standard iconography, but the chancel arch has many more. Fourth-century baptism addresses by Cyril of Jerusalem are referred to in the capitals of the chancel arch; there are newborn babies carved in the arch itself to represent those resurrected; and the character of beakheads is made clearer. It is suggested that a designer from Marmoutier and workmen from Normandy could have been involved, and that the date would be earlier than c. 1148.


32 'The pictures on the greater Jelling stone', Danish Journal of Archaeology, 2014. Published on-line in October 2014 with pages 1-14; print version DJA 3, issue 1, (2014), 19-32
The greater Jelling stone, with an informative runic inscription mentioning King Harald Blatand and the conversion of the Danes, is at the core of a large and important archaeological site of the late tenth century situated in the centre of the Danish peninsula. The stone is thought to have been positioned immediately to the south of some sort of church and between the two mounds ever since that period. The great boulder has three main surfaces, all closely covered by carving. The first face has most of the inscription, which, unusually for runes, is arranged in parallel lines as for a Latin text. The second face shows an animal entwined with a snake, and the third face has the earliest image in Scandinavia of Christ - these two 'pictures' can be compared to a diptych since they share a similar border and are connected by a 'hinge'. Identifying a diptych implies that the two faces must have been compatible not antagonistic subjects. It is suggested that the design and carving was controlled by a missionary party from Ottonian Germany, and that in choosing the motifs they used various sources, mostly in the writings of Pope Gregory the Great. Following these early sources, the animal and snake can be interpreted as God the Father and God the Holy Spirit. It is suggested that Christ is shown ascending to heaven in triumph, so that the two pictures show the Trinity united in celebration of the redemption of mankind.


33 'Romanesque Sculpture at Quenington and South Cerney', Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society 132 (2014), 97-124
With an historical note by Bruce Coplestone-Crow
Quenington church has two magnificent doorways dating from the first half of the 12th century, but their sculpture has never been studied for its own sake. The subject in the tympanum of the north doorway is clearly the Harrowing of Hell; the subject over the south doorway is now shown to be the Crowning of Christ's Bride Ecclesia. Related sculpture at South Cerney uses the same Harrowing of Hell scene as at Quenington; there it is part of an unusual vertical display featuring Christ's Ascension. The complex teaching programmes at these two churches must have been organised by a specialist designer, a cleric. He derived the main imagery from the lost scheme in the chapterhouse of Worcester cathedral priory, had an Anglo-Saxon interest in the Ascension, used apocryphal gospels, and added his own design features to standard Romanesque formats. Further sculpture that can be linked to him and which also employed some of the craftsmen who worked in Gloucestershire has been identified at Dinton in Buckinghamshire (paper 27). It is suggested that Agnes de Mountchesney may have been the patron who forged the link between the strikingly similar doorways at Quenington and Dinton, and her sister Cecily may have been the patron at South Cerney.


34 'Cistercian sculpture: Kirkstall Abbey and Elland Church in the twelfth century' YAJ 87 (2015), 65-100
Throughout Europe a little sculpture survives at most if not all Cistercian abbeys. It can be grouped into three kinds: abstract patterns particularly interlace; foliage designs; human and animal motifs. Kirkstall Abbey, which has Yorkshire's best-preserved Cistercian abbey church, employs all three kinds in an individual scheme dating from the time of Abbot Alexander (d. 1182). It is suggested that the sculpture at Kirkstall Abbey was intended to make a contribution to community life and could have been inspired in part by the Benedictine Rule. Sculpture at Elland parish church derived in treatment from that at the abbey.


35 'The Font at St Mary's Church, Stafford' Transactions of the Staffordshire Archaeological and Historical Society LXIX (2017), 28-49.
The font is singular in form and sculpture, for whereas there would usually be a group of similar fonts in the neighbourhood, all products of a local industry, there is very little to compare it to in the rest of England. The font is unusual also in the sculptural comparisons for its motifs, many of which are with Italian work. The inspiration for most, if not all, of its imagery can be found in the Moralia in Job of Gregory the Great. These recurrent links suggest a direct Italian influence, through both the clerical designer and the workmen. The interpretation suggested, that the man and woman in the upper part of the font have just been baptised, would, if accepted, enlarge current thinking on the rite of baptism as practised in the mid-12th century.


36 'The Two Tympana at Long Marton Church' Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 18 (2018), 123-140.
The oldest part of the church contains two doorways which are likely to be of early post-Conquest date. While a south entrance is normal, to have a west doorway is unusual for a small parish church. Both doorways have sculpture on their tympana; this is in good condition and well-made. The various components are described, comparisons are made, and new interpretations are offered. It is suggested that the west tympanum was related to the Palm Sunday procession, while the south tympanum makes a more general statement of the Christian world-view. Later additions to the church - a west tower with outer west doorway, a north doorway in the nave and a longer chancel - made other liturgical practices possible.


37 'Victorian Architects and the Romanesque' (January 2019)
This article is on-line at http://www.victorianweb.org/art/architecture/romanesque/index.html
It is largely the outcome of my fieldwork in Yorkshire. Not included in the Index, Section 4.


38 Review of Mary C. Webb, Ideas and Images in Twelfth Century Sculpture (2012)
Webb's book was probably begun in the 1950s, the author died in 1986 and the book was published in 2012 by Gillian Greenwood, her daughter. My review, written in Spring 2019, is a Download in Section 5 of this web-site. Not included in the Index, Section 4.


39 'A Grave-marker at Kirby Hill, North Riding’, YAJ93/1 (2021), 170-175
The grave-marker has recently been mounted with three other pre-Conquest stones in the tower-space at the church of All Saints, Kirby Hill. Only the best-preserved face of the stone can be seen, but this is of more than local interest, since its two motifs suggest some cultural connections across the apparent barrier of the Norman Conquest.


40 'Teaching from English Romanesque Fonts' Church Archaeology vol. 20, 2021 for 2016, 19-45
This paper examines some English fonts produced between c.1120 and c.1220 for evidence of the teaching that is implied by their sculptural motifs: fourteen fonts with mixed motifs are analysed, and six broad themes of teaching defined. This result is tested on two further fonts that have puzzling mixed motifs. Lastly, the decoration of the far more numerous fonts with regular patterns is considered in relation to the analysis.


41 'Sculpture at the Green Court Gateway of Canterbury Cathedral Priory’, Archaeologia Cantiana 143 (2022), 181-189
The structure is contemporary with the Aula Nova and the famous staircase: these three units are all shown on the waterworks map and thought to date from the time of Prior Wibert. This complex was built in a novel form to cope with the legal business of the priory. However, a gate on this site had previously existed, as this was already the main entrance to the whole precinct and the cathedral. The surviving legible sculpture in its outer arches is discussed here as having motifs relevant to all those entering the priory from the city, not just litigants. In particular, the six medallions not previously identified are suggested to illustrate the after-life of the blessed in paradise, and this choice of subject can be traced to the idea of ‘law’ as understood by monks.


42 'Exterior Decoration at Sites belonging to the Norman Kings', The Antiquaries Journal 102 (2022), published on-line in September, paper journal in December 2022, 163-187
Five royal buildings from the post-Conquest period in Britain have exterior decoration resembling that at churches. It is accepted that these buildings demonstrated the earthly power of the Norman kings, but their decoration can be shown to proclaim that the power of God was also present, in the person of the king.


43 ‘Early Twelfth-century Sculpture in the Ashbourne Area’ Derbyshire Archaeological Journal, 144. Expected November 2024
Five churches in south Derbyshire and east Staffordshire are connected by physical similarities in their surviving structures and sculpture and also, it is suggested, by the teaching content of the sculpture. The likely source of this broad unity could be in the pastoral effort of a small number of Augustinian canons and their workmen in the early twelfth century, possibly using a base in a community of secular canons already existing at St Oswald’s, Ashbourne.






Romanesque Yorkshire

Yorkshire Archaeological Society Occasional Paper No. 9 (2012)

ISBN 978-1-903564-86-8

Contains an introduction, discussion and background material, a gazetteer of 300 sites in the historic county, a map, over 500 photographs and a full index; 264 pp.
Published with a grant from the Henry Moore Foundation


The Society has moved to smaller premises, and old stock has been dispersed. As at January 2021, copies may be obtained through the society's web-site (www.yas.org.uk for £10 inc P+P), from the author in person, or (eventually) through book-sellers.


Reviews of Romanesque Yorkshire

“a welcome addition to regional studies… introduces many little-known sites”  -  Malcolm Thurlby in Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 168 (2015), 251-2 

“an accessible, even conversational, style… even those who disagree with her conclusions may find their consideration of the material sharpened.”  -  Richard Plant in The Archeological Journal (2015)




the World of Romanesque Sculpture

This book is the fruit of thirty years engagement with Romanesque sculpture
not just in Yorkshire or even England, but across Europe.

It is suggested here that Romanesque sculpture was one vehicle of the 'Gregorian' reforms of the Church: that sculpture was promoted to teach the laity; that frequently-occurring motifs indicate circulation of approved forms, and that the sources behind much of the imagery can be identified in mainstream biblical and patristic texts.

The carvings are not full of fear, punishment and dragons as is often assumed: rather the opposite, they depict the central Christian message about the availability of an after-life in Paradise for believers. The extravagance of the carvings pictures the richness of that Paradise and expresses the vigour of the new life there. To recognise this theme widespread across the Christian West reveals Romanesque sculpture as a purposeful organised expression of a confident and energetic culture in strong growth.

220 pages, 216 Figures, Index and Bibliography; hardback (2017)
Obtainable from Minster Gate Bookshop, York

Reviews of Paradise

“… this is a welcome addition to the growing interest in the potential meanings of monsters and marginal creatures across the field of Medieval Studies… a wide range of pictures from across Europe… an accessible and interesting book.”  - Han Tame in Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 171 (2018), 194-6

“The text is characterized by careful observations of the sculptures… Wood’s interpretations deserve serious consideration in the study of Romanesque sculpture.” - Malcolm Thurlby in Ecclesiology Today, 57 (2019), 97-8

An anonymous review in the Newsletter of the Ancient Monuments Society (3/2019) contains several mis-statements but is vaguely favourable - and compliments my black-and-white diagrams, which is nice.

A positive review by Prof. Dr. Albrecht Classen appeared in Mediaevistik, vol. 34 (2021), 411-12. ‘Splendid… magnificent study…meticulous examination of a large number of examples all over Europe…an astounding wealth of photographs, all of a very high quality…’




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3a    Amendments and Afterthoughts (Papers)

Some of the comments apply to misprints, some correct facts, and others refer to developments of the author’s opinion over time; new information has sometimes been added. Each paper is numbered in bold type in the order of publication, and this number is followed by the page number as published, so that, for example, “1.60” refers to page 60 in the Yorkshire Archaeological Journal for 1994. An index to the published papers is provided in section 4, but that does not include subjects mentioned in Amendments and Afterthoughts..

1 ‘The Romanesque doorways of Yorkshire, with special reference to that at St Mary’s church, Riccall’ Yorks. Archaeol. Jnl. 66 (1994) 59-90.

1.60   ‘The disputes of 1135-54’: there is no obvious break in Yorkshire’s sculpture. The county seems to have been strongly behind King Stephen, as evidenced by the assembly raised for the Battle of the Standard in 1138, and the reaction of York itself when coming under siege by the king’s enemies in 1149. Local enmities, as between Gilbert de Gant and William le Gros, who invaded the priories of Pontefract and Bridlington in the 1140s, took advantage of the general lack of order in the state. No doubt other lesser disputes were resolved by force, and numerous small castles were built as insurance, but this is probably the worst that happened in Yorkshire: the major campaigning and destruction in the period went on south of the Trent. This contrast suggests it is possible that building and sculpture continued more or less uninterrupted in Yorkshire, and the relative peace could even have increased the scale it. The individual archbishops of York (over whose post there was dispute on a national scale) are not noted as patrons of sculpture between the death of Thurstan and the accession of Roger of Pont l’Eveque (1140-54). The patrons of village church sculpture are monastic communities or individual laity. Migrant craftsmen would take advantage of the more settled conditions as well as the good stone in the county. The skilled team from Malmesbury – a designer, at least one French-trained sculptor and other sculptors from the south-west – may have arrived in Yorkshire any time around 1150, see 3.53-56; 13.105-106. Perhaps when English sculpture can be better dated, it will become more obvious that Yorkshire was a cultural haven during the reign of Stephen. 

1.61   The sculptured single stone at Shiptonthorpe (East Riding) is reset centrally in a modern porch. The stone at Sinnington may also be reused, and it resembles others at Hilton and Leake (all North Riding), which are reset. The two doorways listed are therefore not significant as types of centralised design, but the postulated doorway at Conisbrough, paper 13, could be added to the list. The tympanum at Marton is a Victorian remake from fragments, the only stone carved has a sunk cross, and it may have been a gravestone.

1.64   Figure 2, the sculpture at the top of the south doorway at Healaugh. When adding tone to this diagram I assumed, wrongly, that the lost right hand of Christ would have been raised in a general blessing, as is usual. However, I later realised that the hand had been extended, probably sloping downwards, over the heads of the seated couple immediately below: Christ was blessing Bertram Haget and his wife, see 16.61-62 for full account, photograph and references. The error which crept in here (consciously!) is a consequence of the method adopted, and since then shading the background in such drawings has largely been avoided. The diagrams throughout my work are intended to clarify form and to separate it from superficial effects of light, discolouration and aging, also to ease comparisons of subject matter between diverse carvings. Where possible, diagrams are supplemented by photographs, and it hardly needs saying that both kinds of record are only understood fully through actual sight of the sculpture.

1.66   It is not certain that abbot Hugh (c. 1096/7-c.1122) was a de Lacy.

1.69-70        The tympanum at Austerfield. This is an early twelfth-century (if not even earlier) version, in symbols for a lay audience, of a concept illustrated in naturalistic forms c. 1170 in the Hortus Deliciarum, a manuscript made for a nunnery. In that, on fol. 225v, a church is shown in section; the building is filled with bishops, clergy, laity, hermits, nuns, etc., and an enthroned queen, who is Ecclesia; outside on its roof, angels battle with devils. One might wonder which version gives the better sense of actuality, and whether, in going in for naturalism, the later artists would not eventually mislead their public.

1.71,72        Ground water rising is a problem at several of the Yorkshire doorways: a problem not yet solved, that could be due to the materials used in the floors of their Victorian porches combining with the lack of damp courses in the early work.

1.73   Voussoir 9, the ‘mermaid’, see below, 1.85

1.77   The dancer at Foston is not likely to be Salome, firstly because that scheme, like others, uses anonymous examples in its moral teaching, see 2.72. Secondly, another dancer and harpist pair is carved elsewhere without involving the biblical story, see 14.87-89.

1.77   Inverted motifs. The inversions have several possible significations, and so the idea that they were deliberate mistakes is unlikely. The Tree at Barton, Fishlake and Riccall is, as suggested, ‘growing in heaven’, and a similar condition could apply to the lion inverted at Wighill. Voussoir 20 at Birkin, with an inverted wyvern that sprouts foliage and grapes, is likely to represent one of the blessed in heaven. The Agnus Dei at Birkin, voussoir 14, is facing downwards, perhaps with reference to the Incarnation. The headless lion and the bird at Healaugh are, it is suggested, the Father and the Spirit looking down to earth, see 16.57, 16.60-61. The birds, stone 12 on the hoodmould at Kirkburn, are probably inverted to show their spiritual deviation in contrast to the other panels of birds, who are behaving properly, see 11.33. At Bishop Wilton, a mask is turned on its side, or, figuratively, ‘overturned’. At Healaugh, several realistic figures are upside-down, showing they are falling to Hell, see 16.61.

1.81   That there was a big fire in York in 1137 is unlikely, see C. Norton, ‘The York Fire of 1137: Conflagration or Consecration?’, Northern History, 34 (1998), 194-204.

1.78-82        ‘Heads’: the more generalised interpretation is now preferred, that is, the heads can represent the elect on earth or the blessed in heaven. They are anonymous, and too common on the doorways, to be elders of the apocalypse or apostles, etc.

1.85   It is not a salamander on the font at Kirkburn, it is a snake representing the Devil, see 11.52-53.

1.85   Voussoir 9. This is not a mermaid, which was a mistake due to the broken sculpture, and influenced by the small round object held up in the remaining hand. The doorway was taken down and rebuilt in medieval times, and it is obvious that the stones are not in their original order, as the Tree is not between Adam and Eve. It is suggested that voussoir 9 would originally have been low down on the right side of its order, and when complete showed a man with his hands raised to receive a crown. His lower body is emerging from a coffin. Some of these details can only be appreciated by climbing up and observing carefully. Further discussion and picture in Romanesque Yorkshire (2012, pp. 6, 8 and fig. 1a).

1.88   Figure 9: two kinds of Centaur. The correct figure is shown below

      Two kinds of Centaur


1.88-89        ‘North European features’ – these would repay consideration by an expert in pre-Conquest sculpture, the summary attempted here is unreliable.
1.89-90        I no longer think that Cluny was involved at Bishop Wilton, but that the archbishop used a designer from Holy Trinity Priory. See 30.97.



2   ‘The Romanesque doorway at Foston church’, Yorkshire Philosophical Soc. Annual Report for the year 1996, (1997) 67-75.

There were numerous typographical errors in this paper as first published; these have been corrected in the downloadable version (see Section 5).

2.68  ‘Count Stephen’, perhaps Stephen, count of Albemarle (fl. 1115), gave Foston, including the church, to St Mary’s Abbey. See Victoria County History, North Riding, vol. 2, pp. 135, 137. Niel Fossard gave land locally to the abbey.

2.69   line 5, alter ‘distinctive’ to ‘distinct’.

2.71   line 10, alter ‘the mouths of the lions’ to ‘the mouth of the lion’.

2.71   line 9 up, spell ‘Revelation’.

2.71   line 8 up, alter to read ‘the throne of God and of the Lamb’.

2.71   lines 1 and 2 up, alter to read ‘the animals (the blessed) drink in peace (Revelation 21.6b).’

2.72  The dancer and harpist, see 14.87-89. A harpist of this kind, a jongleur or travelling entertainer, is most likely to have been a man. The hair is longer than that of men elsewhere on the doorway, perhaps to indicate sensuality or uncouthness.

2.72   line 12 up, after “institution of the Eucharist” insert
“(1. Cor. 11.23-26). Further, sculpture at Kirkburn links the Eucharist”.

2.72   line 6 up, alter to read ‘the proven origin’.

2.72   line 4 up, insert comma at the end of the line after ‘demon’

2.73   Stone 9. The man walking along the road suddenly carried off by the demon is probably an allegory for a man waylaid by temptation on his journey, and based on sermons of St Augustine of Hippo (e.g., Sermon 131.4 in the modern translation by Hill). He talks about a man going along a road, but overconfident, perhaps proud. ‘The moment you grow proud, that’s when you lose what you had received.’ Sermons 223G, 361.13 and 364B.2-4 are similar.

2.73   line 9 up, spell ‘for example’.



3   ‘Malmesbury Abbey: the sculpture of the south entrance’, Wiltshire Archaeol. & Nat. Hist. Magazine, 91 (1998) 42-56.

See also paper 21, ‘The Occupatio of Odo of Cluny…’ WANHM 102 (2009)

3.48  Footnote 33 is not accurate, it is not known what any of these beasts is, or whether they are the same animal.

3.52  Diminution of scale is discussed in P. Lasko, ‘The Bayeux Tapestry and the representation of space’ in Medieval Art: Recent Perspectives, a memorial tribute to C. R. Dodwell, ed. G. R. Owen-Crocker & T. Graham (Manchester 1998), 29-31.

3.50  Chartres. The north tympanum on the west front (fig. 6) interprets Christ’s Ascension as a prelude to the descent of the Spirit, emphasizing the role of the Church. The Ascension had been seen as the climax of the gospel in earlier times, see my book Paradise: the World of Romanesque Sculpture, (2017).

3.55  The scale in fig. 10 shows 50 miles and 80 kilometres.



4   ‘Real people in English Romanesque sculpture’, Medieval Life 11 (Summer 1999), 8-15.

No comments.



5   ‘The Romanesque Doorway at Fishlake’. YAJ 72 (2000), 17-39.

5.23   The double-bodied lion, which has lost its head at Fishlake, can be seen complete in related sculpture on the chancel arch at Steetley, just over the county boundary in Derbyshire. The lion’s head there is quite broad, as the Fishlake one must have been. Steetley church is a product of the mid-century Yorkshire School, it was not extended in medieval times and was restored from a state of some dereliction by J. L. Pearson in the 19th century.

5.24-26  The cherubim at Fishlake and Elkstone (Fig. 7, right and Fig 8, top) appear to have moustaches. For this, compare J. T. Lang, Anglo-Saxon Sculpture (Aylesbury 1988), p. 72, where he describes an angel in late 11th-century sculpture at Shelford (Notts) as moustached.

5.30 Fig. 11.  The demons raking the ?miser out of his coffin (stones 1-3), and the tussle between the demon and angel on the right capital are subjects which Marcello Angheben relates to the ‘jugement immédiat’ (D’un jugement à l’autre, Brepols 2013). The soul (only) is judged at death in order to decide its place in the interim period before the general resurrection and the Last Judgment. This topic is rare in England and again suggests the learned, and perhaps restricted, nature of the audience for the sculpture at Fishlake.

5.31-32  A parallel for the group of sacrifical animals occurs in an illustration from a French manuscript showing Aaron sacrificing a lamb, watched by a goat, a calf or bull and two birds, see E. Mâle, Religious Art in France: the twelfth century, (revised edn. Princeton 1978), fig. 132.

5.31-33  For Peter the Venerable and sculpture in France, see M-L. Thérel, ‘Pierre le Vénérable et la création iconographique au xiie siècle’, in Pierre Abélard – Pierre le Vénérable: les courants philosophiques, littéraires et artistiques en Occident au mileu du xiie siècle, (Paris 1975), pp. 733-744.

5.34, note 57          George Zarnecki would call the dog on the corbel a hound, not a spaniel.

5.34-35        The Plant is perhaps to be seen as Christ, the Tree of Life. In Figure 11, the terminal leaf of the plant turns and pricks one of the devils in Hell, who might be compared to the figure of Mors, an allegorical figure in a symbolic crucifixion depicted in the Uta Codex, fol. 3v. The text associated with Mors is “death itself perishes before the power of  Christ” recalling Hosea 13:14, that is, ‘I will be your death, O Death’. Mors is bitten by an animal-headed sprig branching from the cross, and is pricked by his own broken spear. See A. S. Cohen, The Uta Codex (Pennsylvania 2000), 55-60.

5.35   Caption to Fig. 14 should read ‘voussoirs 8 to 17’.



6   ‘Before the Green Man’, Medieval Life 14 (Autumn 2000), 8-13.

6.10   The men in some carvings breathe out foliage in scrolling streams, very similar in form to breath exhaled on a frosty morning. One is also reminded of ‘Jack Frost’ on the bedroom window in the days before double glazing: patterns just like medieval foliage formed from the currents of damp air hitting the cold glass. Sometimes, especially in Gothic sculpture, the expression on the human face is that of one waking from sleep, these individuals are waking up in heaven. This could explain the half-open eyes which, combined with the inevitable distortion of the mouth in emitting branches (6.13), give the faces a shifty or uncanny appearance and allow the imagination to construct all sorts of false interpretations.

6.11   Figure 7 shows one of the capitals on the left side of the doorway, not a voussoir.



7   ‘Two lions at Milborne Port’, Somerset Archaeol. & Nat. Hist. 141 (1998) 1-15.

The paper appeared in the spring of 2001, despite the printed date. One additional reference should be cited: R. Gem, ‘The English parish church in the 11th and early 12th centuries: a great rebuilding?’, in J. Blair, ed., Minsters and Parish Churches 950-1200, (Oxford 1988), 27.

7.1,4  The doorway and the church had been reliably dated by various means to c.1090, as described by George Zarnecki in ‘1066 and Architectural Sculpture’, Proc. British Academy, LII (1977) 98-99, reprinted in Studies in Romanesque Sculpture, (London 1979) as Study I, 98-99. The use of the adjective ‘twelfth-century’ was therefore an unfortunate slip, probably due to the feeling that ‘Romanesque’ somehow was not the right word for Milborne Port, most of my experience up to that time having been with the mid twelfth-century sculpture of the Yorkshire School.

7.8     The lions at St Benet’s are slightly differentiated in that one is heavily-built, the other thinner, and their tails are varied. These 11th-century, pre-Conquest, lions share with the later pairs of lions similar minor variations. They also have moustaches, that is, they have human faces, a feature of Romanesque lions representing Christ.
In Denmark, at Viborg cathedral, are two more examples of pairs of lions. In the eastern apse, beside a window lighting an altar within, are a lion with its head in profile, looking up, and a slightly heavier lion looking outwards: the Trinity would be completed by the sacrament on the altar. A tympanum over a nave doorway also has two lions with their heads in these positions, again possibly indicating Christ within the church. At the village church of Skjern, a tympanum has two lions, but they are symmetrically placed, although active; they could make the same suggestion.

7.10-11        I am not quite so sure now that the capitals can be entirely excluded from the search for a representation of Christ. As explained, the left capital pictures resurrection, the right capital, a battle which could be the Crucifixion: the capitals might refer to man’s earthly life in general, or to Christ’s earthly life in particular. These events in time are separated from the eternity in the tympanum. The capitals could be understood as showing the earthly work of the God-Man, and this refinement of the interpretation does not at all invalidate the suggestion that the ‘Second Person of the eternal Trinity’ must be sought inside the church. There are other schemes which show Christ in these two aspects, for example, at Melbourne, Christ is both the smiling lion and the priest, 17.134-135, 17.142-144.



8   ‘The Lions in the crypt of Canterbury cathedral’, Archaeol. Cantiana, cxx (2000) 386-393.

A. W. Klukas has suggested that Anselm’s crypt was built to provide for pilgrims. See ‘The architectural implications of the Decreta LanfranciAnglo-Norman Studies, 6 (1983), 151. This would not make much difference to the readings of the capitals suggested in my paper, for the monks would use the crypt too at times, and any appropriate teaching in the carvings could have been given to pilgrims.



 9   ‘The Romanesque Memorial at Conisbrough’, YAJ 73 (2001), 41-60.

9.47-48   The flatly-carved chalice on the front face of the memorial shows the conventional arc at the top seen in Anglo-Saxon manuscripts, for example, BL Cotton Claudius B.iv, fol 35v (available on-line).This is the type of drawing which is referred to regarding the three-dimensional carving of a chalice in the Canterbury crypt, see 8.388-389.

9.50   The figure lying prone under the dragon’s foot is so near the worn bottom edge of the block of stone that the lower arm is not seen, and it is only one arm that is clearly raised in appeal.


10   ‘Geometric Patterns in English Romanesque sculpture’ JBAA 154 (2001) 1-39.

10.1   The ‘cosmographic diagram’ as used on doorways showed heaven, the firmament and sometimes the structure holding up the firmament. The diagram was a simple teaching tool, making concrete various passages of poetic biblical language.  In the period, it represented the invisible, ultimate state of things. It would have acted like an icon, and, in so far as it followed the biblical format, was a statement of astronomical truth. Literate men, largely clergy at this date, were not well informed about what we would think of as scientific astronomy, nor interested in it (Bede was exceptional in this as other things in being interested and writing of those topics). Eventually, despite theoretical and observational advances in astronomy outside Europe, the material interpretation of biblical statements as in the diagram came to be considered essential to faith. In vain Galileo quoted Augustine of Hippo, who had separated religion from science saying that the concerns of philosophy (natural science) were of no avail for man’s salvation (and so of no concern to the Church). Compare the 14th-century Cloud of Unknowing, chs. 57-61, for ‘up’ as a spiritual direction and not an actual one.

10.1,13 and fig.3    This pattern also occurs at Spaldwick, Hunts, where it is described as ‘geometric pseudo-beakhead (beaker-clasp)’ by Ron Baxter in his CRSBI report, online Feb. 2021. At Toseland the same ornament is worn and can be described as ‘a rough pattern of horizontal reeding.’

10.3,19-20    A necklace-like pattern is used in the arch at Hales, at several churches east of Norwich, and at Helmsley, Yorkshire. Jewellery may indeed have its inspiration. Martina Bagnoli writes ‘the border of gemstones… appears consistently round the apses of Roman churches... painted gemstones associated the apse with the heavenly Jerusalem resplendent of gems (Rev.21.10-21). See ‘Ut domus tali ornetur decore’: Metamorphosis of ornamental motifs in Anagni and Rome’ in Roma Felix, ed. E. O’Carragain and C. de Vegvar (2007), p.216.

10.5   Angels as stars. Augustine reasons that although Genesis does not explicitly mention the creation of the angels it was implied in the creation of light, see De Civitate Dei, xi.9. The Elucidarium, an early 12th century manuscript widely used for teaching, has the pupil ask ‘When were the angels made?’ and the teacher replies ‘When it was said: Let there be light’. Theologian Paula Godder gives several biblical references in which stars, or the ‘host of heaven’, are equated with angels: Deuteronomy 4:19; Judges 5:20; 1 Kings 22:19; Daniel 8:10; Job 38:6-7; Luke 2:14;  (Heaven, (2011) p. 42-3, also pp. 86-8).

10.5-6    Haloed stars. See below regarding patterns formed by concentric lines, 17.131.

10.5-6, 10.14   The bored hole in star patterns may have been filled with a white substance or some colour. The holes in the Hauxwell tympanum, fig. 15, are not bored as a simple conical hole, but are worked round within so that a paste pushed into them would spread sideways and be locked in place. Glass beads were set in the Gloucester candlestick for eyes, and the same was done in Anglo-Saxon sculpture. Sculpture at Adel, Yorkshire, had, and 11th-century sculpture at San Ambrogio, Milan, still has, dark insets in the eyes. The centres of stars in illuminations are often coloured, for example, red in the Silos Beatus fol. 147v-148, though quite often they are black, as just another part of the drawing.

10.9   Star patterns. A tenth-century poet wrote of ‘kings in heaven… inside star-clustered city walls’. Odo of Cluny, Occupatio, Book 7.

10.9,10        The tympanum at Newton Purcell, fig. 10, has what looks like two snakes in one section of the foliage pattern in the tympanum. My more recent work on snakes suggests that these are symbols of believers in the after-life, and not comparable to the single large snake in the Long Marton tympanum, which is the defeated Devil.

10.12 Trellis grid patterns. A Byzantine plaque in Dumbarton Oaks shows a large Christ on a trellis grid balcony above a crowd of small people, just like an emperor seated at an arena.

10.16 A church building ‘decorated’ in a way not practical or realistic is shown in a manuscript from Vivarium, it has interlace on towers and walls. The church is equated with heaven. Illustrated in G. Zarnecki, The Monastic Achievement, (London 1972), fig.8.

10.18 A reconstruction of the west façade of the Galilee chapel of Durham cathedral by Stuart Harrison shows, from below upwards, one row of simple blank arcading, a row of interlaced arcading, a band of trellis grid pattern, then two rows of round-headed windows and lastly three large oculi in a row under three gables. See ‘Observations on the Architecture of the Galilee chapel’ in D. Rollason et al. eds., Anglo-Norman Durham 1093-1193 (Woodbridge 1994), 228.

10.18-22      The architectural features used for representing the firmament are also used on the Fordwich stone, see 9.43. Geometric patterns on this solid monument represent features of a building, its arcades, cornice and slates. The building itself, intended as a church, is a symbol of safety for the deceased, or of heaven. The coped marble slab from St Frideswide’s, Oxford, see J. Blair, ‘An early 12th-century Purbeck marble graveslab from St Frideswide’s priory’, Oxoniensia 53 (1988), 266-8, has a pattern perhaps based on arcading; or perhaps it refers to oculi, in that from one of the semicircles the face of the deceased (presumed to be in heaven) looks out at the living.

10.20-21      Scale patterns. Despite questioning both contractors and the head of heritage management in the Rhineland, it proved impossible to discover why German slate roofs on historic buildings are commonly laid in the way carved at Twywell, fig. 26, and what practical purpose this served. The slates have one straight edge and one curved edge exposed, and these run at different angles to the horizontal. Something of the same fashion was observed on two of the slate roofs of St Padarn’s church, Llanbadarn Fawr, Ceredigion, in 2008. Again, the Slate Museum at Llanberis was unable to suggest why it was done.
C. S. Drake, in The Romanesque Fonts of Northern Europe and Scandinavia, (Woodbridge 2002), 34, notes that ‘in south Wales… along the coast… a cluster [of medieval fonts all have] “scale ornament”. This group is unusual in the high relief of the carving of the scale pattern, so that it looks like the surface of a shingled wooden spire.’ One of these fonts is that at Kenfig, illustrated in M. Thurlby, Romanesque Architecture and Sculpture in Wales (Logaston 2006), fig. 250.

10.21-22   Openings in the solid firmament featured in classical as well as biblical descriptions of heaven, compare Plato in Phaedrus, 247 A-C.

10.22-23   Light symbolic of God’s presence, see P. Godder, Heaven (2011), pp. 62-4.

10.22-25   For the pre-Romanesque period, see P. Jestice ‘The Gorzian reform and the Light under the Bushel’, Viator 24 (1993), pp. full article.

10.23-25   A pattern not mentioned in this paper, but one that seems to be related to zigzagging patterns, is step pattern. This is present in several forms in some works of the early 12th-century, for full discussion see E. Gethyn-Jones, The Dymock School of Sculpture, (London, 1979). Step pattern is characteristic of that school when used as an ornament of the volute, but appears as clearly allied to zigzag in the Kempley wall-paintings (his fig. 37b). Step pattern might have been considered as ‘zigzag upon zigzag’. An earlier example of the pattern is in a 10th-century drawing added to a gospel book to show the donors prostrating themselves before St Egmont, and Christ in a mandorla within a circular glory which is of step pattern (H. Mayr-Harting, Ottonian Book Illumination: an historical study, Part II, (2nd ed. 1999), p. 60, fig. 34).

10.26 Gurk, Austria. The whole wall containing the window is illustrated in O. Demus, Romanesque Mural Painting, (London 1970), 42.

10.26-28   An early term for baptism was ‘enlightenment’, which seems to fit this doorway very well. Bettenson, The Early Christian Fathers (1956), p. 180, quotes Clement of Alexandria, fl. c.200, Paedagogus I.vi.(26), on baptism as enlightenment

10.31 The manner in which instructions about these patterns with assigned meanings were circulated is not known, but in the twelfth century it is more likely to have been as a manuscript sent between clergy than between craftsmen. From a few hints in actual sculpture, it can be suggested that an illustrated list of the patterns was in existence, which would have had a sample of each pattern, drawn in a rectangle, with its interpretation and use written out beside it. At Kirk Levington (North Riding), Braithwell (West Riding) and Little Langford (Wiltshire) sculpture includes upright rectangles containing a pattern, which could have been copied directly and without change from such a document. See 14.95-96 for pattern-books; see 18.129 for the two pattern rectangles at Kirk Levington.
           At a few sites, where one pattern would normally have been chosen from the list, several or all of those available seem to have been used, this happened at Lower Swell, on the chancel arch, and at Kirkburn, round the rim of the font. Other examples of a mixture of geometric patterns can be seen on the font at Goxhill, and voussoirs at Fangfoss, both East Riding. A contemporary parallel I have come across occurred in the making of the ‘Doctor Who’ films. Apparently the very long scarf worn by Tom Baker resulted from the costume designer James Acheson sending a load of wool to the knitter, Begonia Pope, who just kept knitting until all the wool had been used up, whereas he had expected her to make a standard scarf and cast off.
For the dissemination of designs for tympana, see 27.161-165.



11   ‘The Augustinians and the Romanesque sculpture at Kirkburn church’, East Yorkshire Historian 4 (2003) 3-59.

11.4   W. C. B. Smith, Archaeol. J. 141 (1984), 20 says, regarding St Mary’s, Beverley, that it began as ‘a very modest and simple early 12th-century building, one of a chain of contemporary churches stretching across the Yorkshire Wolds, built to a standard plan. The dimensions of these churches vary by only a few inches.’ Smith was a local historian and the remark was apparently made when he addressed a site visit by the RAI. No plans, references or list of churches is published, but it would be a very interesting fact if it were true.

11.4, fig. 1   The church at Wharram Percy has recently been reinterpreted by David Stocker (Wharram Percy, vol. 13). He suggests the apse there was built in the late 12th century, and thus would not be relevant to Kirkburn.

11.4   Kenneth MacMahon, in The Church of St Mary, Kirkburn, some notes on the fabric and its history, (Driffield 1953) wanted to date the nave after 1150, even to 1170-80, and the apsed chancel earlier; the tower begun 1180-1200. The tower is later than the rest, but there seems to be no problem with the nave and chancel being contemporary, for example in the nature of the corbels and what we know of the windows in both.

11.9,58,59    The Westow stone. The posture, with one elbow supported by the opposite hand, is apparently still displayed in contemporary India: ‘they held out their right hand in the condolence handshake position (fingertips of left hand tragically supporting the right elbow as though the right arm, overcome with grief, could not make it on its own…’ Quoted from Rohinton Mistry, Tales from Firozsha Baag (Canada 1987). It is not the first time cultural connections with India have been suggested in European medieval art.

11.18 Regarding the reset corbels at Campsall, discussions with a musician and maker of medieval instruments, Scott Wallace, followed by a re-examination of the corbels, have radically changed my view on what is carved on the second one. This man has a rebec or similar instrument and is ready to sing, if not already singing. His left hand is holding the rebec at the bottom, as a violinist holds a violin; his mouth is open with the tongue showing.  

11.18 The correct title of the book in footnote 40 is The Iconology of Tectonics in Romanesque Art.

11.22 Footnote 51. Regarding the grains of wheat carved, and comparable items in manuscripts, the reference to the Uta Codex is incorrect. The wafer-bread on an altar shown by a circle with a central dot is in the Evangeliary of Bernward of Hildesheim, fol 16v, illustrated in F. J. Tschan, St Bernward of Hildesheim, vol. 3 (Indiana 1952); compare W. Cahn, Romanesque Bible Illumination, (Fribourg 1982), pls. 8 and 46 (the Ashburnham Pentateuch and the Roda Bible).

11.16 The carvings showing people alarmed at what they see in the sky are based on Matthew ch. 14, where changes in the sun, moon and stars are described, and the sign of the Son of Man appears in the heavens – ‘then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn’.

11.26 The flat spirals on the doorway recall the same forms used at about the same time (1120s and 30s) in the Dymock School of sculpture. The pattern is used on doorway and font at Moccas, Herefordshire, to represent foliage. Single spirals on a ‘stem’ on a capital at Kilham suggest ferns springing, and their interpretation as foliage is consistent with the remainder of the imagery there.

11.38-39      The ‘wedding garment’ that the ill-prepared guest lacked (pl. 30, bottom) is usually understood to be provided by baptism, see J. D. C. Fisher, Christian Initiation, 174. The carving is yet another reference in East Riding sculpture to the importance placed by the Augustinians of this period on baptism.

11.40 K. A. MacMahon says of the font ‘… up to the middle of the last century [that is, the nineteenth century], the font was so heavily whitewashed as to conceal the figures, but at the instigation of Archdeacon Wilberforce and Sir Tatton Sykes, it was thoroughly cleaned, and the figures thereon fully revealed.’

11.43 The signing with chrism follows the dipping of the candidate. The prayer that accompanies it, as given in the Sarum Missal, includes the following passage: ‘Almighty God… himself anoints thee with the chrism of salvation…’. After this, the newly-baptised person was clad in his white chrismal robe. See Fisher, Christian Initiation, as above.

11.45 The giving of the keys to Peter. A sermon of Augustine for Eastertide, no.229P, refers constantly to Peter’s denial being transformed by his threefold affirmation.

11.46-47      The Ascension of Christ is carved in a relevant manner on the west face of Muiredach’s Cross, Monasterboice. Illustrated in P. Harbison, The High Crosses of Ireland: an iconographical andphotographic survey, (Bonn 1992), vol. 1, pp. 190-1 and vol. 3, figs. 915, 916.

11.49 Regarding Augustine and the bull as his libido, a relevant phrase in Confessions 8.7.16 seems to be: ‘But You, Lord… turned me back towards myself, taking me from behind my own back where I had put myself all the time that I preferred not to see myself. And You set me there before my own face that I might see how vile I was… but there was no way to flee from myself… I had known it, but I had pretended not to see it…’ (trans. F. J. Sheed).

11.56-8  Appendix B. The interpretation of Domesday Book is continually being revised, and these won’t be the latest studies, but they give new ways of looking at the problem: W. E. Wightman, ‘The significance of ‘waste’ in the Yorkshire Domesday’, Northern History (1975) 55-71; D. M. Palliser, ‘Domesday Book and the ‘Harrying of the North’’, Northern History (1993) 1-23.

11.57, Fig. 7.  Map and caption. Delete the open circle for Sewerby, insert one at Thwing. The font had been taken to Sewerby, but was returned before the restoration of Thwing church.

11.58  The capitals are not from a twelfth-century chancel arch.



12   ‘The Romanesque Tomb-slab at Bridlington Priory’, YAJ 75 (2003), 63-76.

12.67 The Tree of Jesse on the memorial slab in Lincoln cathedral would be relevant there if it was understood as a Tree of Life. The Incarnation (of Christ, a descendant of Jesse) meant the possibility of a return to Paradise for mankind.

12.71 The central position of the tomb of Christ on the tomb-slab is comparable to the shield boss being at the centre of the main face of the Conisbrough memorial, see 9.48. The battle and the death of Christ mean life for those commemorated.



13   ‘Not Roman but Romanesque: a decayed relief at Conisbrough’, YAJ 76 (2004), 95-111.

13.104-5  Francis Wormald comments on scrolls and their deliberate arrangement in the layout of some illuminations, see The Winchester Psalter, (London 1973), 79.

13.105  The suggestion that the sequence of works designed by the Cluniac monk included the doorway at Bishop Wilton has been discarded in favour of a designer from Holy Trinity Priory or its mother house at Marmoutier, near Tours. Whether the other speculative suggestion made in the paragraph is valid, that the designer-monk was involved at York Minster, will probably appear when the work of Stuart Harrison and Christopher Norton on the later twelfth-century Minster is published. The question (13.108-111) of the sculptor being the same man is a matter of personal judgment, and will remain uncertain.

13.106, note 35  The latest discussion by Zarnecki is in Romanesque Lincoln: the Sculpture of the Cathedral, (1988), 80-83.



14   ‘The Romanesque font at St Marychurch, Torquay’, Devon Archaeol. Soc. Proc., 62 (2004), 79-98.

14.90  ‘Wild sows and boars were confined to the Forests of Pickering… and Dean, and became extinct in the 1260s, they were honorary deer, and are never confused with escaped tame pigs.’ (Oliver Rackham, Trees and Woodland in the British Landscape, rev. edn. 1990, p. 169).

14.90 Fig. 11  It is possible to see the dog ‘under the foot’ of the boar just as at Liverton, see Fig.14(iv). The boar’s lower leg and foot seems to be outlined on the flank of the dog, though the line of the dog’s back is continuous. It would need inspection of the carving to see which is most likely. If the foot does overlap in the same way at both places it might be another indication of a circulating pattern-book.

14.91 For the boar and the over-confident dogs, some passages in the tenth-century poem Occupatio by Odo of Cluny seem relevant: ‘Lust… everyone should flee this beast [feram, Book VII, line 302]… no-one should be eager to fight it in hand-to-hand battle, for often it overwhelms even those blest with great courage. And [Christ] the King taught that downfall was swift for the courageous so that none with courage should dare fight, but their eyes should avoid lust and their thoughts avoid touchings…’; later Odo gives the biblical example of Joseph fleeing Potiphar’s wife. The poem provides a great insight into figurative language and monastic thought generally; see paper 21. The translation of the Occupatio made by my friend Peter L. Wood has been accepted for the library of the Warburg Institute, University of London and was added to their on-line repository late February 2020. It can be downloaded as a pdf file from : https://commons.warburg.sas.ac.uk/concern/published_works/pg15bd88s?locale=en

14. 94-6  Circulating instructions. Evidence for these is scanty, but see Lucy Sandler, ‘The images of words in English Gothic Psalters’ in B. Cassidy and R. M. Wright (eds) Studies in the Illustration of the Psalter, Stamford 2000, 83-4.



15   Early Sculptures in Burnsall Church, with E. Coatsworth and L. A. S. Butler, (Burnsall 2005), pp.19-22

The date of the font is likely to be early twelfth century. The carving is simple, but the content is comparable to a capital on the north side of the chancel arch at Liverton, where the lions, wyverns and foliage are more skilfully carved, see 18. figs.10, 11. The same three elements are combined also at Knook, where the outline is clearly influenced by manuscript illumination, see 7.1-2.



16   ‘The Romanesque doorway at Healaugh church’, Yorkshire Philosophical Soc. Annual Report for the year 2005 (2006) 55-65.

The extent of the village is still remarkably medieval: one straight street leading up to the church and the manor house site (not the position presently occupied by the big house). A few council houses do not disrupt the pattern.
For the Haget family, see also Richard Fletcher, Bloodfeud: Murder and Revenge in Anglo-Saxon England (2002).

14.56 A Roger Haget was treasurer of York Minster following William Fitzherbert.

14.60, fig. 4  The cross on the man’s hat (forehead) would have been understood as a reference to his baptism, see Jean Danielou, The Bible and the Liturgy, pp. 55-59.


17   ‘The Romanesque church at Melbourne’, Derbys. Archaeol. J. 126 (2006),127-168.


17.126         Abstract. The term ‘Austin’ is not appropriate in this period, and should be confined to the friars.

17.127         For the stone used, see M. F. Stanley, ‘Carved in bright stone: sources of building stone in Derbyshire’ in D. Parsons, ed. Stone Quarrying and Building in England, AD 43-1525, (Chichester 1990), pp. 174-5. Stanley describes the stone as a very local Namurian sandstone also used on the Hall and the castle.

17.131         Concentric lines. A linear pattern perhaps comparable to the haloed star (as used on enamels, see 10.5-6), and representing light radiating from the basic pattern, which at Melbourne is the circle, possible saltire cross and threefold motif. The font at North Grimston, East Riding, has a panel of concentric lines between the scene of the Deposition and of a bishop giving a blessing. The fourfold pattern is centred on a cusped square and could, perhaps, represent a glory radiating from the Cross. It would thus form the eternal counterpart to the death of Christ alongside. The Last Supper is carved on the same font and, while being realistic in the carving of the disciples, it shows a larger Christ enthroned under a canopy. For illustrations, see L. Musset, Angleterre Romane 2, (La Pierre qui Vire, 1988) pls. 153,154.

17.133         The fact that the snake has been given wings is based on the classical and medieval belief that earthly beings are heavy but spiritual ones can fly. Wings demonstrate a spiritual body. For example, Plato in Phaedrus 246E says: ‘the natural function of the wing is to soar upwards and carry that which is heavy up to the place where dwells the race of the gods. More than any other thing that pertains to the body it partakes of the nature of the divine’. In the 13th century, Bishop Grosseteste in his Hexaemeron uses the flying of birds as an image of spiritual men ‘whose conversation is in heaven, who fly over the earth, who bring the flesh under the yoke of the spirit…’ those who ‘free themselves from unlawful entanglements in worldly business through a desire of higher things, and fly in the richness of the spirit’, etc.

17.136         The correct Latin word is teneo, not tenere. Already in the late 8th century, anonymous saints clasp a short-staffed cross, as at the ‘Tempietto’ at Cividale, and in the Gellone Sacramentary. ‘Holding the faith’ becomes more widely symbolised by the 12th century. Touching the building, grasping something (Thorpe Salvin font, Pampisford tympanum, Toller Fratrum font; Kilpeck, the man holding a cross-staff, see 19.61) are gestures with meaning. They figure tenacity, adherence, and so forth.

17.136         Practical rather than symbolic ‘holding’: the man holds the tail of the wolf: this is a way of restraining or controlling some animals, but the man, wearing rich man’s clothes, is not making a serious effort.

17.139         The tree pushed aside by the wolf is mostly on the west face of capital 4, and unfortunately was not illustrated. It is a fruiting vine with its root under the wolf’s back foot (Pl. 8) and its leafy tip just under the west face of the impost.

17.140         The man in Plate 10 is likely to be a monk, if that is a cowl over his head.

17.142         The grotesque is not a ‘green man’ as sometimes claimed, if only because the foliage is one continuous stem going into and out of its mouth.

17.142         At the end of the section on Capital 6, the Plate numbers should read ‘Pls. 23, 24.’

17.149-151   The capitals of the south window which have a ram on one and a scale pattern on the other. As well as the meaning suggested in the text, another meaning for the ram is as a figure for St Peter or the apostles, who were leaders of the flock which is the Church: this metaphor is used by Augustine in Sermon 58. A fragment said to be by Augustine, Sermon 229R, mentions that the firmament can be interpreted as the authority of the divine scriptures over man: the angels, who are above the firmament, contemplate the beauty of the godhead directly. Although doubtfully attributed, the allegory dates from at least the 9th century. Both interpretations would suit these capitals in the chancel.

17.152-155   Further examples of the contorted pose and its relationship to self-control and hopes of heaven can be found at Rock church, Shropshire, see 19.69-71. There is likely to be an Augustinian connection there too.

17.160-161   Information sent me by Philip Heath after publication suggests that the speculative passage ‘One further clue… the whole church.’ should be disregarded. The existence of a lost church of St Mary’s was a mis-interpretation of the evidence by both Barman and Cox. It is now believed that the present church was at first dedicated to St Mary, while St Michael’s was a church just to the south of the castle, on Castle Street where the old burial ground is. The medieval St Michael’s was demolished at the Reformation and villagers used the present church. The dedication to St Mary was changed about the same time to St Michael.

17.162  The church at Melbourne may have had some relationship to the cell of Nostell at Breedon-on-the-Hill, three miles or so to the SE.



18   ‘The Romanesque chancel arch at Liverton, North Riding’, Yorks. Archael. J. 78 (2006), 111-143.

18.111         The dedication. Lawton’s Collectio  (1842) names the chapel as dedicated to St Martin and does not mention St Michael. Canon Raine, revising Lawton (YAJ 2, 1873), says the then dedication was to St Martin, but was ‘formerly St Michael’. Plans in faculty papers (Borthwick Fac. 1901/9) are headed ‘St Michael’. The dedication is not mentioned in the Terriers in the Borthwick Institute. An early record of St Michael for the chapel may exist in the parish registers, which are kept in Middlesbrough Reference Library.

18.114         Fig. 4 has accidentally been ‘flipped’ left to right.

18.116         Fig. 7, the angel. The wings and face of this angel are similar to one carved on a capital of the west front at Tutbury priory, Staffs, as described on p. 139. It is a novel depiction of St Michael driving Satan out of heaven, but a very clever one, since it is capable of turning an apocalyptic event into an everyday one. More comparisons with Tutbury are discussed on pp. 138-141.

18.125         Third order, left capital. If, as suggested, the crane represents the resurrection body of the huntsman, and the bird-lion and the small lion represent the two obedient dogs, that would account for the crowding of three creatures into this capital.

18.129        Fig. 18. The rectangle to the left of the man’s head is a chip-carved star pattern common in the twelfth century. The patterned panel to his right resembles a fret or key pattern, as used in, for example, the Lindisfarne Gospels, see J. Backhouse, The Lindisfarne Gospels (1981), p. 47. Compare also the dress of a woman thought to be the Virgin Mary, on the title page of the Gellone Sacramentary (fol. 1v); she holds a small cross and carries a thurible. The association with heaven for such geometric patterns may have been continuously known from these earlier periods.

18.131-132   ‘Fratres’. In the Benedictine rule, no. 63 says seniors should call juniors ‘brother’ and juniors should call their seniors nonnus (the reverence due to a father). The abbot, acting in the place of Christ, should be called ‘Lord’, and ‘Abbot’, another word related to ‘father’.

18.135, Fig. 23       The capital at Whitby with the spirals is comparable to capitals in Normandy. See M. Baylé, Les Origines et les Développements de la Sculpture Romane en Normandie, (Caen 1992), figs 532, 533 (Cerisy-la-Foret), fig. 655 (Lion-sur-Mer)

18.140         Second line up from the bottom, for ‘Liverton’ read ‘Tutbury’.

18.141         Fig. 30. Very similar birds to those in Milan are on a capital in Sankt Jakob, Regensburg. Thanks to Michael Tisdall for his photo. They seem to be everywhere – it might be interesting to see where they migrated to!



19   ‘The Romanesque tympanum at Fownhope, Herefordshire and the functioning of the Herefordshire School of Romanesque Sculpture’. Trans. Woolhope Nat. Field Club 53 (2007), 51-76.

The title inadvertently became unwieldy when it had to be revised following the late addition of the section on the Augustinian presence in the Herefordshire School.

19.51 The term faber is not consistently applied to one trade. Joseph, the husband of Mary, is described as faber, and he is usually thought of as a carpenter, but was occasionally shown as a blacksmith, as on the font at Ingleton, West Riding. Also, I have been reminded that carpenters not only made timber buildings, but the scaffolding for any building. Neverthless, there was an overseer, prepositus, at Fownhope at the time of the Survey.

19.53 The web-site of the Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain and Ireland (www.crsbi.ac.uk) quotes the conservation report of 1984 as saying: ‘remains of black, red and yellow pigment [are] scattered over the surface, indicating a fully polychromed scheme existed at some time.’

19.56-7    The Virgin as the Throne. An example of Christ ‘as a child, in a seated position although no throne or seat is visible’ occurs in a 13th-century wall-painting, see Monastic Visions: wall paintings in the monastery of St Anthony at the Red Sea, ed. E. S. Bolman (Yale 2002), illus 4.23. The almond-shaped field enclosing the child is supported by the enthroned Virgin, and one interpretation given of this imagery (the Virgin nikopoios) is that it depicts Mary as pregnant. Christ is enthroned on his mother the Throne.

19.60, Fig. 6 The Tree at Kilpeck is clearly a vine, yet it has flowers. One source that has come to notice is an Anglo-Saxon drawing in the Old English Hexateuch, Cotton Claudius B.iv. On fol.17r, Noah and his family tend a vine which has strong stems and sparse leaves rather like the Fownhope trees. The small clusters of fruit are drawn in two ways, either as a random group of small circles that overlap naturalistically, or 5-7 grapes ring a central circle. In the latter case, the cluster looks just like a simple flower. Could it be that, unfamiliar with the actual flowers of the grape (which are inconspicuous), the Kilpeck sculptor developed flowers for the vine after seeing such a drawing? The actual form of the flowers is somewhat like that in the Evangelary of Otto III, fol. 34v.

19.61 As symbols of souls passing into heaven, the two fish swimming upwards are comparable to the snakes and the birds on the capitals at Newport, see 20.174,175.

19.62 In the fresco with the two trees at Civate, the inscription on the book held by Christ is: q sitit veniat or ‘Whoso thirsts, come’ (John 7:37). Illustrated in O. Demus, Romanesque Mural Painting, (London 1979), colour pl. 13.

19.67 Regarding secular power over local churches, Gerald of Wales tells how half the income of the church at Hay-on-Wye was being taken by the parson’s brother. This would be about 1176, soon after Gerald was appointed Archdeacon of Brecon.

19.68-69  ‘The uniformity… in this way’ is duplication of earlier statements and could be deleted.

19.69 Augustinians may have exerted local influence although Fownhope did not belong to them.

19.71 In Fig. 13, the man’s foot is just above his hand, not ‘near the elbow’.

19.70,71      The bulging biceps of the supposed ‘exhibitionist’, as well as underwear similar to that worn by the priest at Rock, are combined in one figure in Cologne; the carving is accompanied by wyverns and foliage. See 17.155.

.71, and figs 12 and 13  The composition of both capitals shows advisers either side of a man; it is perhaps derived ultimately from a classical composition showing muses flanking a philosopher, to suggest the transference of superior ideas to him. This model would be relevant to the capital in the chancel at Rock, and that in the nave. Further, it would be an important source for a common Romanesque motif, of a pair of snakes ‘nibbling’ a man’s ears, and other similar compositions. An example in Roman mosaic shows full figures of Virgil, flanked by the epic muse and the tragic muse; this is in the Musée Le Bardo, Tunis, but a better example was shown at the IMC in Leeds in 2017.



20   ‘St Gwynllyw’s cathedral, Newport: the Romanesque Archway’ Archaeol. Cambrensis 155 (2006), 163-185. Co-authored with Jeremy Knight. Appeared Dec. 2007

It is asserted in this paper that the capitals of the archway picture the heavenward ascent of the souls of Saints Cadog, Gwynllyw and Gwladys, and that this scheme is an individual development of the widespread use of the Corinthian capital to depict the ascension of man to Paradise.

An early and influential source for this iconography was the scheme on two capitals at the abbey-church of St Bénigne, now Dijon cathedral, paper 23. The Burgundian abbey under William of Volpiano was one of the great centres of monastic reform, and St Gwynllyw’s, a fairly average church, was following the general fashion over a century later. At the time of writing the paper on Newport, my work on the Dijon sculpture was incomplete, so that the interpretation given in 20.174-75 was to change a little though it would remain substantially the same. In the French abbey the expression of the theology is understandably much more precise than in Newport, so that in Dijon the wyverns represented the souls, and the little men the resurrected bodies, of the faithful: at Newport, the snakes and birds ascending, and the men ascending too, presumably all represent souls.

It was believed that souls were eternal and enjoyed some sort of heavenly existence while awaiting the general resurrection at the end of time, when they would be reunited with their bodies and, Judgment safely over, could enter Paradise. A lack of precision about the complex theology of resurrection is quite usual in sculpture, as elsewhere: the important thing to do was to represent the ultimate attraction of eternal life, and in doing so imagery is often conflated. Thus, in Cadog’s exhortations of his parents, he is looking forward to the joys of the heavenly kingdom and barely speaks of punishment. Paradise was the reward that could do most to persuade people to persevere in their Christian duties and practice.  

The snake or wyvern was one of the most important symbols employed in this effort. It had various different, though related, positive uses. Firstly, occasionally the wyvern is used singly, as on the tympanum at Knook, 7.2, where it is paired with a lion, and at Liverton, where again it appears with a lion, 18. figs. 10, 11. In such cases, the lion and the wyvern represent believers in Paradise, man’s unknown resurrection body taking the form of animals with good spiritual connotations. Secondly, it is quite common to see two wyverns symmetrically placed, as on the tomb-slab at Bridlington, 12.64,69, or at Milborne Port where they flank a man emitting foliage, 7.12. Symmetry, which indicates the ordered life of heaven, involves duplication, and is a popular convention. The two symmetrical snakes are one being, and do not to represent, for example, the separate soul and body, or two spiritual entities. This at least is the case on the chancel arch at Rock, 19.70-71, where there are two symmetrical snakes integral with a man’s body. By comparison with the capital facing into the chancel we can understand that the two snakes are whispering to the living, earthly, man. They speak to him of heavenly things, just as the saints encourage the priest. The snakes represent something like the man’s will or, we might say, his conscience. Thirdly, and more rarely, two snakes are carved in sequence, as at Kilpeck on the shafts of the doorway and on a capital at Llanbadarn Fawr, Radnorshire, 22.55-60, that is, one snake is shown with its tail in the mouth of the other. At Llanbadarn Fawr it can be understood that the sequential snakes are likely to represent distinct entities, that is, the motif displays the new spiritual body (the resurrected body) reunited with the soul. The use of snakes to represent other spiritual beings, or something like what we might call ‘conscience’, is further examined in paper 27 on the doorway at Dinton.

20.165         Figure 1. This general view was taken from the north-west corner of the western chapel. The entasis of the left-hand column (20.166) is not as well shown as it could have been because a thin sliver of light from a distant window in the south aisle merges with the pale column. A small adjustment of position would have given a silhouette as good as for the right-hand column.

20. 168 Figure 3; 174-5     The pattern on the snakes at Newport and in Dijon may be related to metalwork, see P. Lakso, Ars Sacra (Penguin, 1972) pl. 2, the (?)early 9th-century cover of the Lindau gospels (lower left hand background area).

20.172 Figure 6; 175-6.     The terminating pattern of the chevron rolls might have been derived from some Roman detailing seen locally, or in Gloucestershire.

20.174 Figure 7.     The two loops hanging from the man’s belt are for suspending a knife or dagger in its sheath, and the absence of this potential weapon would perhaps indicate the man’s peacefulness.

20.181  Re the Hedda stone, recent research by David Stocker and Paul Everson suggests that the various holes remain from an initial Roman use of the stone block. In the medieval re-use, the holes would have been filled, and the whole plastered and painted. The two phases of use are indicated by traces of an initial cylindrical drilled hole, and its modification by widening inside to retain the plaster infill.



21   ‘The Occupatio of St Odo of Cluny and the porch sculpture at Malmesbury Abbey’, Wilts. Archaeol. & Nat. Hist. Magazine, 102 (2009), 202-210.

21.202         The translation of the Occupatio made by my friend Peter L. Wood has been accepted for the library of the Warburg Institute, University of London, and was added to their on-line repository in February 2020. It can be downloaded as a pdf file from : https://commons.warburg.sas.ac.uk/concern/published_works/pg15bd88s?locale=en

21.204         T. F. Mathews, in Byzantium 330-1453, ed. R. Cormack & M. Vassilaki (Royal Academy of Arts, London 2008), pp. 48, 54 (re catalogue item 3) says that Heracles is frequently found carrying the offering tables in Roman mortuary iconography, and that Christians use the same offering tables, but instead of Heracles the supporting figure is the Good Shepherd.

In the eighteenth century, Handel’s librettist used Cerberus in the Resurrectione oratio, and freely other classical characters and myths also.

21.208         The sentence near the top of the second column ‘Single men’s heads… (Gloucestershire).’ should have been at the end of the succeeding paragraph, after ‘the dead.’ Or might be omitted.



22   ‘The Romanesque doorway at St Padarn’s church, Llanbadarn Fawr, Radnorshire’ Archaeol. Cambrensis 156 (2007), 51-72. With a contribution by David Stephenson. Appeared March 2008



23   ‘The two major capitals in the crypt of Saint-Bénigne, Dijon’, The Antiquaries’ Journal, 89 (2009), 215-239. On-line, 19th May 2009; in print, October 2009.

23.217 n. 10 The incised patterns on the wyverns at Dijon may be related to metalwork, see P. Lakso, Ars Sacra (Penguin, 1972) pl. 2, the (?)early 9th-century cover of the Lindau gospels (lower left hand background area).

23.230-1  Corinthian capitals. A more precise guide to classical capitals and their developments is given in J. Onians, Bearers of Meaning: the Classical Orders in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance. Princeton (1988).

23.233, n.51  An important additional reference to burials with sticks is a description in W. Rodwell, ‘Revealing the history of the cathedral: 4. Archaeology of the nave sanctuary, Friends of Lichfield Cathedral 67th Annual Report (2004), 33, 35. The burial of a priest probably dates from the late 13th century; it was accompanied by a variety of well-preserved features including a painted cloth over the coffin lid, and traces of a eucharistic wafer with linen cloth and a pewter paten. There was a long thin stick lying between the coffin and the cist on either side; also, two much smaller twigs forming an equal-armed cross, these were in the centre of the painted cloth on the coffin lid. The continuation of what might otherwise appear as a pagan survival is here found in the context of meaningful Christian symbolism and provided for a high-ranking cleric. The dead sticks are an affirmation of the expected resurrection.
See also, R. K. Morris, Churches in the Landscape, 80-1, fig. 20.
An example of a burial with sticks is on exhibition in St Peter’s, Barton-upon-Humber (2011).



24  ‘Augustinians and pastoral work: the evidence in sculpture’, Monastic Research Bulletin 15 (2009), 37-41.



25  ‘The Norman Chapel in Durham Castle’, Northern History XLVII/1 (2010), 9-48.

25.10-11   Environmental monitoring has been done by the Durham architects Howarth Litchfield to assess the slow decay of the stonework. Their report suggests reducing the ground levels of the North Terrace to allow controlled drying out, together with further conservation measures in the chapel itself (information found on-line, April 2019).

25.15  The flooring under the paving. Rush flooring was found in the choir of the first stone church of Fountains Abbey, date shortly after 1135, see R. Gilyard-Beer and G. Coppack, ‘Excavations at Fountains Abbey, North Yorkshire 1979-80: the early development of the monastery’, Archaeologia 108 (1986), p. 156b, Pl. LVIb.

25.16, Fig. 4   The pavement is well illustrated by an old photo in N. Pevsner,
County Durham, 2nd ed., revised. E. Williamson, (1983) plate 15.

25. 35  The aversion to using pagan symbols appears earlier, in Clement of Alexandria (c. 160-220): a Christian’s seal should have symbols such as dove, fish or ship, but not mythological figures. ‘We are not to delineate the faces of idols, we who are prohibited to cleave to them, nor a sword, nor a bow, following as we do, peace; nor drinking-cups, being temperate’ (Paedagogus 3.11).

25.36  Note 79 should read: Mermaid, see Moralia Preface ch. 20 and Book XXXV ch. 25.

25.38  The ancient paved choir of Canterbury Cathedral has a similar central line of square slabs; the remainder of the floor having larger slabs set on the diagonal.

25.39, 40  Figure 28 shows the likely position taken by the bishop, in the NE corner of the chapel, this was suggested by the direction of the chevrons in the paving, the carving of the ox on capital N1, and known practice elsewhere. An examination of an early mosaic floor by John Mitchell provides another example of a floor space marked out for a bishop. The careful placement of motifs in a church was long-established practice in Byzantium and mainland Europe. The circular baptistery at Butrint in southern Albania has been compared to more famous contemporary baptisteries in Italy, such as those in Ravenna. The most distinctive mosaics are on the axis between the door, the font and a niche with a fountain: these have been read as a progression from entry as a catechumen; baptism into the earthly church and on to ‘the image of the Fountain of Life in Paradise’. By observing the patterns elsewhere in the mosaic, Mitchell was able to suggest the positions taken by the bishop and the catechumens. The font in the centre is encircled by a wide band of interlaced roundels filled with geometric patterns of polychrome ‘chequerboard’ tesserae, and the sector for the bishop is marked by two medallions with similar geometric patterns: these are the most sacred spaces in the baptistery. John Mitchell, The Butrint Baptistery and its Mosaics, (London 2008) pp. 37, 61-73.  

25.42  St John’s chapel in the Tower has been the subject of recent detailed study, see The White Tower, ed. E. Impey (Yale UP 2008), Roland Harris on the structural history of the Tower, pp. 27-94, and John Crook on the chapel, pp. 95-123. I would like to thank Dr Harris for drawing my attention to this work. From their styles, the capitals are seen to fall into two groups, ‘dating from the 1070s (possibly into the very early 1080s) and the 1090s: they were sculpted either side of a building break, for which there is much wider evidence’ (pp. 43-4). There were changes in materials used, but the plan of the aisled chapel had existed from the beginning. Crook suggests that the earlier capitals were kept in store and not set until building resumed. Whether the break caused any disruption of an intended plan for placing the various patterns around the arcade is difficult to say; Crook thinks there may have been errors. A set of five capitals with volutes but different forms might have been intended for the apse (p.120).
The perceived irregularity (‘lack of concern for uniformity’) of the patterns on the capitals throughout the chapel is characteristic of a Romanesque context. It could imply a heavenly profusion or richness; it gives life to what would otherwise be a severe and static architecture.

25.47 note 126 discusses, among other things, a capital at Graville priory, in a suburb of Le Havre, which shows two decapitated men holding their heads in their hands, and the suggestion is made that they are two martyrs in heaven receiving back their heads. A source in John Chrysostom is given for this scene in L. Seidel, Songs of Glory: the Romanesque Facades of Aquitaine (Chicago 1981), p. 110, note 65.



26  ‘A Romanesque corbel at Kildwick church, North Yorkshire’ a communication, YAJ 81 (2009), 355-56.     



27  ‘The Romanesque doorways at Dinton and Leckhampstead’, Records of Buckinghamshire 51 (2011), 139-168.

27.142  Dinton inscription. Mary Curtis Webb identifies a source for the first line of this couplet in Gregory the Great’s Moralia in Job, book 35 chapter 19, and its preceding chapters. She quotes from an English translation: ‘let no-one who is conscious of his weakness despair of obtaining the inheritance of his heavenly patrimony’ (Ideas and Images in Twelfth century Sculpture, revised edition 2012, p. 72; pdf downloadable from www.bucksas.org.uk . See further my review of the book, available as a download from Section 5 of this web-site; her discussion of the sculpture at Dinton contains errors of identification).

27.154  Leckhampstead doorway. The left shaft shows an irregular scale pattern on RCHM BB 63/727. Inexperienced sculptors often found scale pattern particularly tricky – or they had some other reason for the irregularity which we have not fathomed.

27. 154-164 and fig. 27   Related sites. Mary Webb discusses the tympanum at Pitsford in Chapter 4 of her book, and relates the sculptural style to Dinton. Both doorways are on the CRSBI web-site; constructional features can also be seen to be comparable to Dinton. See further, note 33.123 below. Pitsford is 35 miles north of Dinton; Leckhampstead is about halfway between them.

27.160  Patronage. A better review of the evidence is given by Bruce Coplestone-Crow, see paper 33.123-4. Agnes de Mountchesney, or Munchesney, is still likely to have been the patron for Dinton’s sculpture; the patron at Leckhampstead is unknown, but the advowson was held by the largest of the three manors there.

27.161-5  Pattern-books. This term refers to circulating, common, documents containing approved motifs – none survive, but several types can be guessed at from features of the sculpture at churches. In geometric patterns, one occasionally sees a pattern within a rectangle (as on the Braithwell tympanum, Kirk Levington chancel arch and Little Langford tympanum): the form might have been copied from a written list in which a rectangular sample of the pattern appeared beside a written interpretation.
A second indication of a pattern-book is when a variety of geometric patterns are used where there might have been only one pattern: this is rare, but suggests the workman did not realise he should choose one and use it throughout (Lower Swell, chancel arch; Goxhill font, also the label of a doorway in the south-west whose name I have forgotten…). On the rim of the Kirkburn font the choice of six patterns is probably deliberate, but could still have been made from such a pattern-book.
The number of tympana with similar motifs and arrangements also suggest pattern-books, as illustrated in this paper (figs. 25, 26); the similarities in the widespread depictions of the boar-hunt strongly suggest the factor linking them was a circulating pattern-book, and that itself is a subject that does not appear in manuscripts but only as church sculpture (14.95-96, figs 14, 15).
Unlike a craftsman’s sketchbook, pattern-books must have originated from some authority in the Church because their function is to give uniformity to teaching. To look at the sculpture at Lower Swell is to recall sculpture in the East Riding of Yorkshire, particularly at Kirkburn, and then wonder if the Augustinians were not busy in Gloucestershire too.

27.163  ‘Triumph of Christ’. The ascending Christ is triumphant (hence the crown), but the theme of the tympana in the man-between-animals design, fig. 26, is strictly not the ‘Triumph’, but more accurately the ‘Homecoming of Christ’. Both designs picture the Ascension, but the Triumph imagery uses the metaphor of a Roman victory parade. Tympana in that design have a wreathed Lamb in the centre, flanked or supported by two lions representing the Father and the Spirit, see, for example, paper 7.8-10, figs. 9-11. See also Paradise: the World of Romanesque Sculpture (2017), 43-67.

27.164  Augustinians may also have been implicated in the Herefordshire School, through the bishop and through Wigmore, see 19.67-72.

For Quenington and South Cerney, see paper 33.



28  ‘The Augustinians and the Romanesque Font from Everingham, East Riding’, YAJ 83, (2011), 112-47.

28.114, The sentence ‘The relative poverty… Birkin and Brayton in the West Riding’ should be ignored; the dating of the two churches so early was mistaken.

28.114, 147  The interpretation of Domesday Book is continually being revised, and these won’t be the latest studies, but they give new ways of looking at the problem: W. E. Wightman, ‘The significance of ‘waste’ in the Yorkshire Domesday’, Northern History (1975) 55-71; D. M. Palliser, ‘Domesday Book and the ‘Harrying of the North’’, Northern History (1993) 1-23. In the case of Everingham and its surrounding settlements, rationalisation of the estates with the emphasis on Everingham would agree with the provision of a special font, and the two priests. If estates were being reorganised for the sake of income, they could be reorganised for pastoral purposes too. Destruction may be suggested by ‘waste’, or perhaps it was a poor area that could be improved.

28.146   The idea that there might have been sunken font basins in the floor of the massive west towers at Etton, Garton-on-the-Wolds, Nunburnholme, Hotham and Goodmanham was tested by GPR in 2016-17. The results were inconclusive but Magnitude Surveys who did the work have sent their reports to the OASIS archive run by the Archaeology Data Service, and they should become available on-line. Report MSSE32 covers Hotham and Goodmanham, report MSSE183 covers the other three sites.
I sometimes wonder if North Dalton might also be a candidate, as its present font is not of the same date as the rest of the sculpture, it has a large tower, and there are all those odd square blocks with a sort of star pattern – did they build up a wall around a basin in the floor?



29  ‘The Romanesque doorway at Little Langford’, Wilts. Archaeol. and Nat. Hist. Mag. 105 (2012), 145-156.

29.149-50  For Leominster Priory and the unity of its west doorway, see M. Thurlby, The Herefordshire School of Romanesque Sculpture (with a History of the Anarchy in Herefordshire by B. Coplestone-Crow), Logaston, 2013, pp. 224.



30  ‘The church of St Edith, Bishop Wilton, East Riding: a sympathetic nineteenth century restoration allows an interpretation of the Romanesque sculpture’, YAJ, 84, 77-119.

30.79 note 5. The account, on page 9 of the actual newspaper, describes ‘an octagon spire’ correctly.

30.86  Fig. 7. In the third order of the doorway, stone 19 should be shown as a new carving, stone 20 as old. Fig. 11b, p. 90 shows the contrast between stone 20, and stone 21, a new carving. The web-site version of the article or the pdf file gives these figures in colour, which helps.

30.101, 102  Figs. 21, 22, spiral volutes as foliage. These are conventional forms used in voluted capitals and follow styles of carving in Normandy. Ultimately the tight curl is derived from the leafage of a Corinthian capital. Compare capitals in Durham Castle chapel, 25.19, 32; figs. 8, 22, 23.

30.104 and stones 7, 10 and 14; 118. The mark on the forehead, or by extension, on the hat, could be a sign of baptism, and thus ownership by God, see Jean Danièlou, The Bible and the Liturgy, pp. 55-59.



31  ‘The Romanesque sculpture at Adel church, West Riding – a suggested interpretation’, YAJ, 85 (2013), 97-130.

31.121  Voussoir 6 (not illustrated). On this voussoir ‘the new man’ is probably shown emerging from ‘the old man’ (Eph. 4:22; Col. 3:9); although St Paul applied this renewal to earthly life, here on the arch it is made relevant to the general resurrection, to heavenly life. The curious ‘hot-cross-bun’ appearance of the head emerging from the larger face could be a depiction of yet another feature of the newborn. The top of the head of an infant has soft spots remaining between the several bones which eventually fuse to form the skull.

31.124-5  The ring or bracelet in the mouth. This curious metaphor is used by Peter of Celle (d. 1182) in The School of the Cloister, xxiv.3, and is followed by another metaphor from Gregory the Great regarding Christ ‘shattering the teeth’ of death. See Peter of Celle, Selected Works (Cistercian Publications, Kalamazoo 1987), p. 112. The weakening of the power of death by the Resurrection is a feature which is illustrated in sculpture, for example, by the muzzling of beasts. Numerous images which are found in sculpture at village churches can be gleaned from a careful reading of Peter of Celle but, as a monastic, he does not hold out much hope for seculars (pp. 184-6). His figurative language, however, would not have been foreign to Augustinians or perhaps even secular priests. The writings of the earlier monk, Odo of Cluny, similarly show how commonly figurative language was used to make a point. Figurative language is something we still accept in speech, but we find its presence surprisingly hard to appreciate in medieval sculpture.

31.130  St Bernard: see Giles Constable, ‘A report of a lost sermon by Saint Bernard on the failure of the second crusade’, essay XII in Religious Life and Thought (11th-12th centuries), Variorum reprint from Cistercian Publications 1971, 1979.


32  ‘The pictures on the greater Jelling stone’, Danish Journal of Archaeology, DJA vol. 3, issue 1, 19-32.
on-line, October 2014.

Early readers of the on-line version may have found Figure 3 (the Mystic Crucifixion from the Uta Codex), ‘flipped’ left to right. This has now been corrected so that the figure of Ecclesia, in a pink robe, is on the left. The error is regretted, but luckily made no difference to the use made of the image in my text.

The stone as presently seen within its glass case outside the church preserves a slumped position acquired over centuries (Fig. 1). The nearby museum sells a plaster model and, using this, a much more satisfactory impression of the carving can be achieved. First, place the text face A so that the lines are horizontal; maintain that condition and tip the model so that the figure of Christ is vertical. The increase in impact and majesty is quite remarkable.



33  ‘Romanesque Sculpture at Quenington and South Cerney’, Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society 132 (2014), 97-124, with an historical note by Bruce Coplestone-Crow

33.102  If the New Testament scenes were in the windows of the Worcester chapter-house, the Crucifixion would be in the window of bay 5, behind the abbot’s chair and opposite the door from the cloister in bay 10. This would suit the convention that ‘the Crucifixion… was normally on the east wall’, and that at times the gathered community faced east ad crucem, or ad imaginem, or ad Majestatem, as described by Neil Stratford in his ‘Notes on the Norman chapterhouse at Worcester’ (1978), 54-55.

33.123  re the work of the team beyond Gloucestershire. New facts have come my way since this article was published:
(a) The CRSBI web-site has added a report for Dinton which notes very similar sculpture exists at Cheddington and Twyford (Bucks); all three reports, by Ron Baxter, are on-line.
(b) The book by Mary Webb, Ideas and Images in Twelfth Century Sculpture (2012) discusses the tympanum at Pitsford and links it to the one at Dinton. (My review of Webb’s book is downloadable from Section 5 of this web-site.)
The Pitsford sculpture is also on-line on the CRSBI web-site, so all comparisons are easy, and the appearance and make-up of the Pitsford doorway is seen to be remarkably similar to those at Quenington (though I cannot stress too much the superiority of an actual visit to every place).
Consequently, the work of the team is extended by three further sites at the eastern end of their journeyings. 



34    ‘Cistercian sculpture: Kirkstall Abbey and Elland Church in the twelfth century’ YAJ 87 (2015), 65-100

34.73  ‘it was his habit, when he entered the church… to grip the door [ostium]’. I translated ostium as door, but note that David Park, in discussing the Cistercian’s use of painting (Norton and Park 1986, 182-4), translates ‘portas vel ostia’ as ‘doors and doorways’. This translation would fit the situation at Fountains better since the carving in question is on a capital.

34.73  The prayer at the door may be in an even longer tradition, compare the following short, plain poem by George Herbert (d. 1633). Among his collection on ‘The Church Building’, is this on The Church Porch:

Avoid profaneness; come not here:
Nothing but holy, pure, and clear;
Or that which groaneth to be so,
May at his peril further go.

34.80   Further details of the arches at Strata Florida can be seen in photos by Marie-Thérèse Castay in Archaeologia Cambriensis 165 (2016), 320.

34.96  The ‘whispering snakes’ come from the piscina alcove, but their source can hardly have been in unconsecrated bread and wine, should those ever have been left there for any length of time (they belong on the credence shelf to the west). Perhaps the source might have been imagined in the traces of the sacrament in the washings repeatedly drained into that part of the wall through the basin on the right hand side of the shelf – yet even that would hardly be enough to spark this imagery.

Coursed at the same level as the snakes is a small rectangular recess in the back wall (Fig. 27). Similar recesses occur also in the chapels in the transepts, but are slightly smaller, in proportion to the architecture. There is no special sculpture in the side chapels; although their basic form is like that of the main alcove, the imposts are of normal length and profile. The recesses would be big enough to take a chalice of the period*; it could stand there at any time during the mass without fear of being knocked over by a trailing sleeve or an unsteady hand, for example.

Recess in the presbytery    30 x 20 x 23  (w x ht x d)
Recess in a side chapel      24 x 18 x 20
Another in a side chapel    24 x 20 x 20
Recess in use at Adel church       25 x 30 x 24

It is not known what the practice of the Cistercians was at this time regarding the reserved sacrament, where or how it was kept; lockable aumbries are not known in our period.* Terryl Kinder, in Cistercian Europe (2003), makes the following points: the reserved sacrament was suspended in the east end of the church to prevent rodents (p.173); the viaticum was one of the last rites (p. 365); monks were allowed into the church during morning hours for prayer if not reading (p. 134); she qualifies many of her remarks with the proviso that local custom often determined the details of what happened at any abbey.

The reserved sacrament might have been kept in the infirmary,* but that is not central, chapels serving the infirmary are not an early feature, and duplication of reservation seems unlikely; further, the bread becomes stale and is normally consumed by the priest during the course of the following mass,** so it would best be kept in the church.

Because of the snake imagery, I would like to suggest that, at Kirkstall in the 1150s, the reserved sacrament was kept in the sanctuary, in a box in this recess.


[Thanks to Glyn Coppack* and Val Crompton** for discussions on this topic.]



35  ‘The Font at St Mary’s Church, Stafford’  Trans. Staffordshire Archaeol. and Hist. Soc. LXIX (2017), 28-49.

35. 36,41  The yoke bearing a light cloak is discussed as an item temporarily worn by the newly-baptised; wearing a new white garment was an ancient convention. A font at West Rounton, North Riding of Yorkshire, has the half-figure of a man who can be seen as newly-baptised since he seems to be naked, and has hold of the bow of the Christ-centaur, as a sign of his adherence to Christ. There is a circular ledge showing just below his beard: this could be a yoke similar to the one more fully-identifiable on the Stafford font.

35. 36, 41-42   A late pre-Reformation panel shows a fully-clothed woman being baptized while kneeling near the font; something is about to be poured on her head from a jug. This scene is in glazing at St Michael-le-Belfry church in York; window nV has part of a series of the life of St Thomas Becket and the figure represents his mother.

36. 129   The feathers I described as ‘primary coverts’ are the few small stiff feathers on the first digit known as the ‘alula’. This feature and term would have been familiar to falconers and others at the time.

38   Review of Mary C. Webb, Ideas and Images in Twelfth Century Sculpture (2012)   
Plate 85 shows the interior of the font bowl at Ramsbury, Wiltshire, once thought to have been ‘Norman’. Comparison of the recorded history and sculptural treatment of this font with another at Bisley, Gloucestershire, suggests that both fonts are largely Victorian inventions, carved by the gentleman-sculptor Thomas Meyrick, who may have known the source Webb describes in her caption, or something similar. Both fonts have typological subjects on their Victorian stems. The bowl of the Ramsbury font is thought to have been a re-used pineapple ornament from a gateway at Ramsbury manor; the bowl at Bisley seems to have been a recarved twelfth-century font. See further details in my report for Bisley on www.crsbi.ac.uk

40   ‘Teaching from English Romanesque Fonts’, Church Archaeology vol. 20, (2021 for 2016), 19-45.

40.32   Rope as an allegory for intercessory prayer. A Carthusian manuscript, c. 1460-1500, illustrates people in a basket, drawn up out of purgatory and brought to Christ in heaven, by prayers said at mass; the giving of alms also relieves those suffering in purgatory. The manuscript is BL MS Add.37049, fol. 24v. It was one illustration in an on-line lecture by Michael Carter for SCA in September 2021.

40.36 (Fig. 32) This motif in the arcade on the font at Darenth, Kent, seems to have been copied from a Roman original which, initially, had been supposed to deflect the Evil Eye: such composites were common in classical times. A Roman gem-stone with a very similar creature to that on the font was found at Scartho, near Grimsby, this item was illustrated by Martin Henig in a lecture at Bedale in 2022. The stone had probably been imported from Italy, and it had been re-set in the 13th century in a silver mount to be used to seal letters. The Latin inscription around it would have been composed for the purpose by the owner, translated, it reads: “The writer signs, the horse sends, the wings deliver it.” It is interesting to see how this later owner has imagined a new meaning for the composite animal.
Martin Henig, ‘The Re-use and Copying of Ancient Intaglios set in Medieval Personal Seals, mainly found in England: an aspect of the Renaissance of the 12th Century’, in Good Impressions: Image and Authority in Medieval Seals, ed. Adams, Cherry and Robinson, (British Museum 2008), 25-33. The item is listed as M23, pl. xxiii, in the Corpus of Roman Engraved Gemstones from British Sites, (2007), p. 193, also by Martin Henig.

A similar creature, a century before, had been re-imagined as a marvellous new human being in Paradise. Roman mermaids and centaurs were similarly given a new ‘story’ by the medieval Church.

40.37   Heading should read F. Visions of Heaven (yellow)


3b    Amendments and Afterthoughts (Books)

Romanesque Yorkshire (2012)

Yorkshire Archaeological Society Occasional Paper No. 9 (2012)
The book has its own index and is not included in the index in section 4 of this web-site.

A sheet of Errata should have been inserted in every copy. If yours does not have one, here it is:


Apart from such typographical accidents, there are factual errors, for example:
The three West Riding dioceses (Ripon and Leeds, Bradford, Wakefield) have been reorganised as the diocese of West Yorkshire and the Dales, but I guess you wouldn’t be misunderstood using the old names.

p. 25a  It is Little Ouseburn, not Great Ouseburn, that has the re-used Roman stones. (Thank you, Paul Thornley).

pp. 14-5 The interpretation of beakheads as evil spirits in this passage cites biblical sources and the Fathers, but also Milton’s Paradise Lost, book 10, where Death gloats over sinners just as the ‘raucous fowl’ circle for their prey on a battlefield.

pp. 16-7 The interpretation of snakes. Another later text, Langland’s Vision of Piers Plowman, Passus 15, alludes to a metaphor I have identified in Romanesque sculpture, that of the snake as the soul and several other positive spiritual entities (see Paradise: the World of Romanesque Sculpture, pp.157-67). The dreamer of the vision saw: ‘as it sorcerie were, a sotil thing withalle, oon withouten tonge and teeth, [it] tolde me whider I sholde and whereof I cam, and of what kynde…’ The snake is described as ‘subtle’ in Genesis 3:1: ‘Now the serpent was more subtle than any other wild creature that the Lord God had made’. Also, a snake could be described as a creature without tongue or teeth. In a conversation between the dreamer and the snake-like creature, Langland goes on to list all the things that this creature can represent – Anima, Cristes nature, Mens, Memoria, Racio, Sensus, Conscience…

p. 80 Dent. There is a good comparison for this hoodmould at Kelsale, Suffolk, in the reset S chancel doorway. Again there are the two animal masks and the arch of chevrons, though the work is in better stone and is still clear, where not broken. It makes one wonder about the priest’s doorway at Healaugh, whether that at one time also had a hoodmould with animal stops at the bottom, and the human head, now on the left side, at the top. Something similar could have existed at Moor Monkton too. All four sites on-line on www.crsbi.ac.uk. Although the skilled moulding profiles of the arches of churches of this later twelfth-century period had eliminated sculptured voussoirs, the basic lessons were still being presented: eschew evil and think of heaven.

p. 147  The tower at Laughton-en-le-Morthen is not Victorian but Perpendicular, and I thank the late David Hey for kindly pointing that out.

p. 172 Pickering Castle. There is a (perhaps) reset doorway with one order of voussoirs very like the first order of the nave doorway at Fangfoss church. David J. Mercer also tells me that there is ‘an early Norman hall’.

p. 236  York, St Lawrence, Hull Road. The newly-carved (and criticised) capital was stolen in 2013, and it is hoped that a more accurate replacement will be carved following the engraving, and securely fitted.

p. 248  Bibliography. The entry at the top of the second column (re Cistercian Sculpture) should be deleted. The article eventually appeared with the same title in the Yorkshire Archaeol. J. 87 (2015), 65-100. It is Paper 34.


Paradise: the World of Romanesque Sculpture (2017)
It is inevitable that further travel, discussions and reading will supply both new topics which accord with my thesis, and uncover exceptions to the interpretations I have suggested; as I say on p. 5, ‘there must be local emphases and there are other universal themes’. One of the first exceptions which I have come across concerns what I call ‘portal-lions’ (pp. 91-100, especially pp. 91-2). The Languedoc area of France is often separated from the rest of that country as an area with a different set of architectural and sculptural features (for example, Beigbeder 1969, 13, 228-9). It appears that lions at entrance façades in that region were pictured as acting like the classical fierce guardians, or as medieval agents of authority and justice: in at least two instances they have their claws tearing grooves in the bodies of crouching humans. This feature is seen at Saint-Gilles-du-Gard and at Saint-Trophime in Arles; illustrations are given in Whitney S. Stoddard, The Façade of Saint-Gilles-du-Gard: its influence on French Sculpture, (1973), figures 29, 67, 382 and 388.

pp. 157-167 The interpretation of snakes. A 14th-century text, William Langland’s Vision of Piers Plowman, Passus 15, alludes to a metaphor I have identified in Romanesque sculpture, that of the snake as the soul and several other positive spiritual entities. The dreamer of the vision saw: ‘as it sorcerie were, a sotil thing withalle, oon withouten tonge and teeth, [it] tolde me whider I sholde and whereof I cam, and of what kynde…’ The snake is described as ‘subtle’ in Genesis 3:1: ‘Now the serpent was more subtle than any other wild creature that the Lord God had made’. Also, a snake could be described as a creature without tongue or teeth. In a conversation between the dreamer and the snake-like creature, Langland goes on to list all the things that it can represent – Anima, Cristes nature, Mens, Memoria, Racio, Sensus, Conscience…

Back to top

Index to Articles

Adam and Eve 18.113,115,134, 28.133,135
Adel 8.387, 10.8,24, 11.7, 26.335-6, 30.81, 95, 96, 105, 117, 118, 31.97-130, 34.83
Agnes (de Lacy) Mountchesney or Munchesney 27.160, 33.123-4
Agnus Dei 11.22,48, 30.113-15, 31.103, 39.170-75
Alexander, abbot of Kirkstall 34.73-4
All Saints’ Day 23.233-34, 235
All Souls’ Day 23.234, 236
Allen, J R 31.105,107, 110
Allen, Thomas 30.79
Altar cross 27.143-4
Anastasis, see Harrowing of Hell
Ancrene Riwle11.50,51
Andrew of St Victor 19.69,72
Angel Gabriel 18.115-6
Angels, as light 21.208
Anglo-Saxon ‘overlap’ features 36.124-5, 39.170-75
Anglo-Saxon society 33.111,112,118,123
Animal composites, see Combination animals
Animal, clothed 41.187
Animal composites, see also wyvern
Animals, climbing 35.36,40,2
Animals, normal 28.135-6, 30.104
Apocryphal gospels 33.112-13,118
Appleby 36.123-4
Archbishop of York 30.91
Archer 28.128, 131
Architecture of the firmament 10.18-22
Ascension (as Christ’s homecoming) 27.154-5, 158, 165, figs 21, 26
Ascension (as Christ’s Triumph) 7.8-9
Ascension (Christ) 3.50-1, 11.46-47, 19.65-66, 20.177, 32.22,25, 33.116,117,118,
Ascension Day 23.233-34
Ascension of Man 20.165-179, 23.236, 33.111,118
Ascension of Man, see also Green man, Foliage, Resurrection bodies, Soul, Wyvern, etc.
Ashford-in-the-Water 27.164
Askham Bryan 10.21
Aston, Herefs. 36.134
Augustine of Canterbury to Mellitus 41.188
Augustine of Hippo, carved 11.14,48-9, 17.136-40, 40.41
Augustine, works of, Confessions 11.48-49, 17.137,139,140,146
Augustine, works of, De Catechizandis Rudibus 28.117-8, 140
Augustine, works of, De Civitate Dei 11.53-55, 17.141
Augustine, works of, Sermons, for example, 18.134, 40.31,40,41
Augustinians 11.3,11-13,56-58, 12.63-76, 17.127,131,138,139,145-147, 18.130-132,141-143, 19.67-72, 24.37-41, 27.164, 28. 114, 115, 139-42, 145-7, 40.23-5,42-3
Ault Hucknall 36.134-5
Austerfield 4.9, 9.45, 10.5,7,8,25
Austin canons, see Augustinians
Autun 10.37 n.13, 19.54-56

Baptism (see also Easter Vigil) 2.74, 4.11-15, 11.39,40, 24, 28.117,142-7, 31.112, 32.22, 35.30,31,33,34,41-2, 40.19-45
Baptism, adult 28.142-4, 35.41-2, 40.27-9
Baptism ceremonial, see Exultet rolls
Baptism of Christ 31.108,111-12
Baptismal tanks 28.148
Barford St Michael 10.16,17
Barfreston 10.21,22
Barton-le-Street 1.63,64, 3.53-4, 5.21-2, 6.12-13, 7.6, 30.92,96,97,98,104, 108,109,110,115,118, 31.19,115,126,127,128,129
Battle, Rescue (the Crucifixion, Harrowing of Hell) 28.128-33, 30.105-6, 111-113, 31.111,112,113
Battle, cosmic, ongoing 36.135-6
Bayeux tapestry 7.4, 7.5 twice, 42. 169, 181
Baylé, Maylis 23.216-17, 219, 225, 226, 42.163-4
Beakheads 10.25, 16.59-60, 30.98-9, 118, 31.102,115-16
Beakheads, ‘abstract’ 10.7-8
Beakheads at Elland 34.97-8
Beakheads, restrained by roll moulding 31.105-6
Beakheads, see also Romanesque Yorkshire, 14-15
Beatus vir, initial 41.186
Beckford 10.5, 22.52,55
Behemoth 31.111
Belton, Lincs., font 1 40.19-45 passim
Benedictine Rule 34.72, 84, 85, 87-89, 96
Bernard of Clairvaux 34.66-8, 74, 89, 96
Bernay abbey, Normandy 29.153,154
Bessingby font 28.123-4
Bestiaries with Augustinian connections 11.55-56, 24.40
Bestiaries, in relation to sculpture 17.138
Bestiary 23.228
Bestiary, see also Philippe de Thaon
Billet moulding 10.12, 29.145
Bingley 10.17
Birchanger 10.9
Bird 14.85, 20.168-169,175
Birds, as believers or souls, see Dove, Perdix, Crane
Birkin 6.11,12, 16.55, 17.151
Birkin corbel CS14 39.173
Bishop 30.114-15
Bishop Norton 10.11,12
Bishop Wilton 10.25, 30.77-119
Bishops’ chapels 25.11,13
Bite, sting 31.n. 56
Boar, boarhunt 14.89-95, 18.118-119, 29.145-8, 31.109,111
Boat 36.128,133
Bondleigh 10.19
Book of Kells 32.26
Boroughbridge 31.127-8
Bradbourne 10.25
Braithwell 10.5,6, 42, 166
Brayton 7.8, 8.389,391, 16.55
Bread, wine 4.8-11
Bread, wine and fish 11.33-4
Breath, of Life, foliate or stranded 6.10, 7.10,12, 30.103-4
Bridlington priory 12.63-76, 24.37,39,41,
Brize Norton 10.14
Bugthorpe 30.86,n.18,95,115
Bullock or ox 34.69-70, 72
Burghclere 10.21
Burials 36.126, 137
Burials with sticks 23.233, n.51
Burnby 30.95
Burnsall 15.19-22

Cable patterns 10.9,11, 28.120-2,126
Caen, the Échiquier 42.180
Calendar 40.30-31
Callimachus 23.230-231
Cambridge, St Benet’s 7.8,12
Cambridge, St Peter’s 25.33,36
Canterbury cathedral 8.386-393, 10.14,17,18, 20.173,176, 25.42,43-44, 28.123,4
Canterbury cathedral priory 41.181-189
Canterbury, columns in ‘dark entry’ 42.179-80
Carter, John 25.10, 11
Castle Frome, font 35.30,31,35,36,40,41,42
Castor 14. figs 4, 5, 7.
Cat and Mouse 11.50-51, 28.126
Cecily (de Lacy), countess of Hereford 27.139,160, 33.123-4
Centaur 1.87-8, 2.73, 23.226, 23.219, 226, 25.35-36, 28.129-31, 30.112, 31.113-6
Cerberus 21.203-205
Chaff 28.135
Chalice, actual 8.388-389, 9.47-48
Chalice, attribute of Ecclesia 33.104, 108
Chancel arch 18.113, 30.118
Chancel arch sculpture 31.108, 119-129
Chantrell, R D, architect 31.98,100
Charlieu 5.32,34-5
Chartres 3.50
Chasuble and cope 33.116-17
Chepstow, the Great Tower 42.170-172
Cherubim 5.24-6, 10.37
Chesterblade, Somerset 39.173-4
Chevron, zigzagging patterns 10.23-25, 42.167, 168, 183
Chip carving 10.9, 36.127,128
Chislet 10.11,17
Christ as Judge 31.102,105,121
Christ enthroned 31.103,104, 33.116-7,
Christ, as Eagle 23.227-28
Christ, as priest 17.142-144, 33.121
Christ, God-Man, two natures of 11.58-59, 14.94, 19.65-66, 25.35-6
Christ, imitation of 20.177,179, 29.153,155, 31.115
Christ, see also Centaur, Double-bodied lion, Lion, Smile
Christchurch priory 10.20
Church (Christ) 28.135,141
Church and State 42. 168
Church, corporate life of congregation 29. 146-8,155
Church, Holy Church, see Ecclesia, Noah’s Ark
Ciborium 10.21, 33.104,115-6,fig.11
Cistercian legislation 34.65-68, 81
Cistercian sculpture 34.65-100
Civate 10.9, 19.58,61-62
Cloister 34.70,72
Cloud hiding God 10.25-6
Cluny, Cluniac 3.42-5, 5.20,35, 9.59-60, 13.98, 104-106,111, 16.55, 21.202-210
Cold Aston, Glos. 10.14
Cologne, Köln 13.109-110, 17.155, 19.57, 27.150, fig 16
Combat, see Battle
Combination animals 18.120-123,142, 35.36,37,42
Composite animal (Trinity) 36.129,134-5
Condicote 10.14
Conisbrough 9.41-60, 35.36
Conisbrough memorial 13.95-111, 39.172-3
Conscience 29.152
Contemporary people 4.8-15, 11.24,41-46, 16.61-62
Context 27.154
Control, of beakheads by roll-moulding 31.105-6
Control, of monster by a ring 31.124-5
Control, see also Muzzle
Conversion 32.19-21,27,31
Copgrove 4.9-10
Corbel tables 10.24, 26.355-6
Corbels, admonitions against fornication 11.20-1
Corbels, general theme: the Second Coming 11.14-19,25, 26.355-6, 31.100-103,120-1, 40.38-9
Corbels, uncommon motifs 11.22-3
Corinthian capitals 20.166-167,173,179, 23.217-18, 230-31
Corinthian capitals, see also Spiral volutes
Cornerstone 30.117-18
Coronation, Norman kings 42.176-179
Coronation of the Virgin 33.101-103,120
Cosmic battle 27.143-4
Cottam, font 2 (at Langtoft) 40.19-45 passim
Covington 7.7
Cowlam, font 3 40.19-45 passim
Craftsman 1.67-9, 5.22, 10.1,31, 13.108-111, 18.136, 19.66-67, 28.116-7,118-126
Crane 14.85, 17.133,144-146, 18.124-126, 19.69, 27.147, 158
Crane, see also Fox and Crane fable
Cross 31.112-13, 36.133,135-6
Cross-halo 23.224,
Cross-signing by priest 11.43, 23.233,n.51; 25.24
Crown, crowns 33.111, 31.112, 36.132
Crowning of Ecclesia 33.101-104,111,118-19
Crown-wearing 42.178-9
Croxdale 10.24
Crucifixion, see Battle (with monster)
Crusades 9.48,51-2,55-8; 31.111,129, 130
Crypt 20.179, 23.215-39
Curlew 36.129,135
Curiositas 17.140
Cury 10.11
Cyril of Jerusalem 31.102,111-3,117,126,128

Daglinworth 4.11
Dancer and Harpist 2.72, 14.87-89
Dancing 29.153-4, 155
Darenth baptism scene 4.12
Darenth font 4 40.19-45 passim
Dating 2.68, 22.62 -68, 31.129-30
David and Goliath 30.105-7
David, king, psalmist and harpist 31.109,111,112, 41.183,186-7
Death 23.228-30
Decay of stonework 1.60, 16.56, 19.52
Decoration 10.1, 42.163-187
Deification 20.177,179, 23.235
Deposition of Christ from the cross 31.108,112
Derbyshire, see also Melbourne, Bradbourne 19.68,69
Designer 2.72, 3.55, 5.20, 6.12, 17.147, 18.130-134, 19.66-67, 27.143, 161-5, 28 passim, 30.95-7, 33.118,121-23, 35.28,46
Devizes 10.20
Discretion 35.44
Dijon, Saint-Bénigne 20.174-175, 23.215-239, 35.46
Dinton 10.12,25, 22.54,55, 27.138-54, 33.121-124,35.46
Diptych 32.27-9
Disorder, distortion, asymmetry 10.57-58,60, 17.142, 18.121, 31.120-21, 36.133
Door-pull or closing ring 31.108
Doorway, prayer on entry 34.73
Doorways, reading 1.69-70, 2.69, 30.95-7, 31.103-8
Doorways, retained in Gothic 27.141
Doorways, two elaborate ones at one church 33.97,118
Doorways, types of 1.61-3
Double-bodied creatures 35.44-5
Double-bodied lion 5.23. 8.386-393
Dove 14.85, 27.144, 28.133
Dragon 2.72, 9.48-50, 11.36-37, 12.68,69, 27.143, 154-5, 36.128-9, 133 etc.
Dumbleton 10.9,10,24
Durham castle chapel 17.155, 25.9-48, 35.46
Durham castle chapel as model for cathedral 25.44n.105, 46, 47
Durham cathedral 10.13,18,23, 25.46-8
Dyeing 35.33
Dymock 10.21, 42.172n., 174
Dymock School 22.55,62-64

Eagle 18.124-125, 23.227-28, 233
Ealdred, archbishop 30.78
Eardisley font 40.39-41
Ears, high-set and narrow 29.153
Earthly life 29.154, 35.44,45
Earthly life, see also Winter
Easington 18.129,133
East Riding 28.112-47
Easter 11.39
Easter Vigil 11.41-45
Eastrington 31.127
Ecclesia (Bride of Christ) 33.97,103-108,111,120
Ecclesia (Holy Church) 25.35-37
Egleton 10.17,18
Elkstone 5.25-6 19.58-59,62
Elland 34.96-98
Elsenham 10.14
Ely cathedral 10.13
Enlightenment (baptism) 10.26-28, 19.71
Eton Roundels (Eton College MS 117) 33.102,figs.4,5,9
Etton 30.95, 98
Europe elsewhere, 10.19,29
Eve and Mary 18.116-117
Everingham 24.41, 28.112-47
Everingham, font 5 40.19-45 passim
Everton 10.24
Exempla, see Pattern-books
Exhibitionist 19.7-71
Exultet roll 11.41-46, 35.31

Facial expressions on corbels 35.37,39,40
Facial expressions, see also Smile
Fangfoss 30.95, 98
Farnborough 10.21,22
Fergusson, Peter 41.181,183
Fighters (see also Wrestlers) at Luppitt 40.31,38,39; at Eardisley 40.39,40,41
Figure-drawing 35.32,34
Figurative sculpture 1.59,62-3, 10.1, 17.129,130
Figurative sculpture and repetitive work 20.167
Findern 10.10
Firmament 10.8,18-21,24, 36.127,131-2
Fish 10.33,34, 18.132,142n.71, 19.61, 20.174, 30.114, 115, 31.125-6
Fishlake 5.17-39, 8.388, 13.106, 30.92, 98
Flaran Abbey 34.69-70, 72
Flesh and spirit in conflict, see also Wrestlers 29.152
Flower-like motifs 10.5
Foliage 2.68-9, 6.8-13, 7.5, 21.209-210, 23.233, 25.17,24,31, 23.233, n.51, 28.121-2,139, 30.99, 103, 32.25,27 34.68, 70, 73, 79
Foliage, lintel pattern 10.11
Foliage, see also Spiral volutes
Folksworth 10.14
Font, fonts 14.79-98, 28.115,120-1,142-47, 35.29, 40.19-45
Fordwich 10.20
Foston 2.67-75, 28.122-3, 30.91
Fountains Abbey 34.72-3
Four living creatures 33.99,108-111
Fownhope 19.51-76
Fox and Crane fable 11.23, 12.71-73, 17.144-145
Freudenstadt, font 35.31,32,36,40
Fritwell 27.164
Fruit 29.150
Fulda 23.217, 228, 235

Gag, see Muzzle
General resurrection 31.121
Geometric patterns 10.1-39, 11.53-4, 17.131-132, 18.126-127, 25.17,20,26,29, 33.120-21, 3842.163-169
Gerald of Wales 22.65
Germany 35.31
Gernrode, Germany 7.9
Gisborough, see Guisborough
Glazing schemes 33.102,116,118
Gloucester, St Nicholas 19.59,62,69
Gloucester, St Peter’s abbey 20.163-165,181
Goat 31.113
God, as Trinity 16.60-61, 32.22, 25-31
God’s law 41.183, 185
God, as Trinity, see also Lions, two
Goxhill 28.137
Grave-marker 39.170-75
Great Canfield 10.24
Great Durnford 10.14, 42.168
Great Rollright 10.11,12,14
Green Court gateway, Canterbury 41.181-189
Green man 6.8-13, 29.150
Green man, see also Man with foliage; Man with stars
Greenness 35.42
Gregorian reforms 35.46
Gregory the Great, works of 23.227-28,232 fn, 233, 25.26, 29, 31,35-6, 47, 27.152-3, 32.22-3,30-1, 34.94, 96, 35.33,41,42,44,45,46
Guisborough priory 18.127-8, 132, 143, 24

Hales 10.3,14,19
Hamersleben, Germany 7.8-9
Hampstead Norreys font 38
Hands 35.36
Hare 5.31, 29.153, 30.106, 31.125-6
Harrowing of Hell 33.112-116, 40.30,38-9,39-41
Harrying of the North, aftermath 11.56-58; 28.114,147
Harvest (end of the world) 11.22; 29.149-50,155
Haslingfield 42.175
Hauxwell 10.14
Hawksworth 10.12,13
Healaugh 4.14-15, 10.17,18,23-4, 16.55-65, 30.95-7, 99, 105, 113, 114, 117, 118, 31.127,129
Heaven 10.3,9,12-17, 33.119-120,122
Heavenly life, see also Springtime 29.154,155
Heckingham 10.19
Helmsley 10.19
Henry I 42.172, 181
Hercules 21.203-205
Hereford, St Giles 10.17
Herefordshire School 19.53,66,67-72, 29.149-50
Heybridge 10.14
Hognaston 11.30
Holy Church, see Ecclesia
Holy Trinity see Trinity
Holy Trinity Priory, see York
Hoodmould (label), sculpture on 11.28
Hook Norton font 6 40.19-45 passim
Horse 11.20-21,36, 17.137, 21.209
Horse-like animal 39.170-2
Horseman 28.135,138-9
Hugh de Lacy 34.73, 96
Hugh of St Victor 19.68,72, 28.140-2
Human heads 1.78-82
Hunting 25.22,24
Hutton Cranswick 10.24
Hutton Cranswick, font 7 40.19-45 passim

Ieuan ap Sulien 22.61,67-68
Iffley 10.21-2
Iford 10.21
Ilam, Staffs., font 8 40.19-45 passim
Incarnation 5.22-9, 7.10-11, 31.109,112,113,115,118-19
Individual schemes 27.161, 164
Ingleton, font 9 40.19-45 passim
Inscription 27.141-2, 35.29,33,34
Inspiration 27.153, 34.94, 96
Interlacing patterns 34.66-68, 70-1, 74-81, 84, 92-6, 32.25-7
Inverted motifs 1.77, 30.101,104
Isabella de Warenne 9.55,59
Isidore of Seville 32.30
Italy, Rome 35.31,35,44,46

Jelling 32.19-32, 35.44-5
Jerusalem, actual 31.111
Jerusalem, heavenly 33.99, 101
Job (the tenacity, patience of) 17.136,138-139,141
Jonah 23.229-30, 237, 36.132
Jouarre 10.8
Judgment, see Second Coming
Jumieges abbey, tau crosier 25.33,36

Kencott 10.9,10
Kilham 10.24,26-8, 17.138, 24, 28.143,4
Kilnwick Percy 30.95, 98
Kilpeck 10.24, 19.59-61,68, 22.60,64
Kirby Hill 39.170-75
Kirk Levington 18.128-130, 42.166
Kirkburn 4.13, 11.3-59, 17.137,144, 24, 28.115-7, 30.85,87,88,91
Kirkburn, font 10 40.19-45 passim
Kirkstall Abbey 34.65-100, especially 73-96, 35.46
Kirton-in-Lindsey 10.16,17
Knight on horseback 31.117-8,129,30
Knook, Wilts. 7.1-2, 27.164

La Charité sur Loire 3.44
Label-stops 34.81-90
Labour for month of February 30.115
Labourers 29.149
Lambeth Bible fol. 198 5.37-8,39
Lanfranc, archbishop 42.167, 179-180, 181
Law, of God 41.183, 185
Laity carved 40.27-9,30
Layfolk’s Mass book 4.10
Leckhampstead 10.7,9, 27.154-9, 160, 165, 36.132
Leeds 31.97
Legal business 41.181-4
Lent 11.39
Leo fortis 18.121,n.20
Leominster Priory 29.149-50, 152
Le Puy cathedral 25.33,36
Lessay abbey, Normandy 29.153
Lewthwaite, clergy family 31.106-7
Liber floridus 35.30
Lichfield 35.28
Life, see Heavenly life, Earthly life
Light, actual and/or spiritual 10.5, 34.75-6
Light, of God 10.11,22-26, 22.54-55, 23.234-35
Lincoln cathedral 10.13,17,23
Linley 10.24, 25.24
Lintels, patterns on 10.8-12
Lion, as Christ 2.71, 12.73-74, 14.82-83,85, 22.54, 29.149,150, 30.110-11, 31.117
Lion, as Christ, see also Double-bodied lion
Lion, as God the Father 32.29-30
Lion, threatening, as the devil 30.109-10, 35.33-4,43,44
Lions, believers 15.20-21, 18.123, 25.29, 30.107, 31.113, 35.36,42
Lions, in general 7.3,4
Lions, two, as Father and Holy Spirit 7.3,8-10
Little Langford 18.125-126, 29.145-56, 42.166
Liturgical function indicated by sculpture 25.38,40
Liverton 18.111-143
Llanbadarn Fawr, Ceredigion 22.51, 67-68
Llanbadarn Fawr, Radnorshire 22.51-72, 27.164
Llanthony priory 19.68
Local saints of Wales 20.166,180-181, 22.51-72
Logos (Word) 19.62
Long Marton 10.9,10, 36.123-140
Long Wittenham 29.154-55
Lorsch abbey 10.21,22
Lullington 27.164, 164, 33.110 n. 39
Luppitt font 40.38-9

Malmesbury abbey 3.42-56, 10.19, 10.25-6, 13.98,99, 21.202-210
Malone, Carolyn M. 23.216, 227
Man juggling 41.187
Man leaping 41.187
Man playing vieille 41.187
Man with foliage 18.117-118,133,134,135,137, 19.70, 20.173,174,175, 25.24,35
Man with foliage, see also Green man
Man with handbells 41.187
Man with stars 10.24, 18.135, figs.18 and 24
Man-between-animals design 27.162, 165, fig. 26
Marden 10.24
Marmoutier abbey 31.98,126,128,129
Martyr(s) 23.215,225,236
Mask 1.82,87-8, 6.11, 30.98-9,104-5, 31.102, 120-21
Mask and foliage 9.47,49
Mass for the Dead 23.227,234
Maulbronn abbey 34.69, 87
Melbourne 17.127-168, 18.134, 19.70, 24,37,39,40,41
Melchizedek 17.142-144
Memorial sculpture 9.41-4, 12.63-76
Mermaid 25.31,33,35-37, 30.108
Mermaid or merman 41.187-8
Middle Chinnock 10.21,22, 24
Milan, San Ambrogio 18.141-142, 23.219, 232, 35.36
Milborne Port 7.1-15
Milton, John see Romanesque Yorkshire, 14-15
Minster church 19.51,69
Modena cathedral 20.177,179, 25.33,36
Mole 10.27-28, 17.138
Monk Sherbourne 10.14
Monsters 23.225-26, 228-30
Moralia in Job, see Gregory the Great
Moreton Valence 10.24
Moses 1.72, 10.11
Mouchan 35.36
Munchesney 27.139, 160
Musicians 41.186-7
Muzzle 21.208-209
Muzzle, Gag, see also Control
Muzzled beast 34.81-90, 96

Naturalism 4.8-15
Newborns 31.121
Newly-baptised 35.33,35-6,41
Newport cathedral 20.163-185
Newspaper report 30.79
Noah’s Ark (Hugh of St Victor) 28.140
Noah’s Ark (the Church) 19.71-72
Norfolk and Suffolk, some churches 42.183-4
Norman kings 42.163-187
Normandy 29.153,154
North Cerney 20.175,176,178
North Grimston font 11 40.19-45 passim
North Italy 23.217
Northampton, St Peter’s 25.43
Norwich castle 42.181-184
Norwich cathedral 10.13,20
Nostell Priory 17.147, 18.133-4
Nun Monkton 13.98,100-101
Nunburnholme 31.128

Occupation of St Odo of Cluny 3.45-48, 21.202-210, 23.228
Oculus 10.21,22
Odo of Cluny, see Occupatio
Orant 4.11, 20.169,175,177, 25.24,35
Ottonian Germany 32.19,22-25,27
‘Overlap’ features 36.124-5
Ox 25.29,47
Ox or bullock 34.69-70, 72

Paint 25.17,46
Palm Sunday 36.126-7,137
Pampisford 4.11-12
Paradise 31.107-8,119,123,128, 40.35-6
Paradise, rejoicing in 41.185-8
Parousia 10.14
Partridge, see Perdix
Pastoral work 24.37-41, 28.127,135,141
Patron, patroness 1.65,66, 6.3-4, 16.55-56,61-64, 19.52,66-68,75 n73, 33.123-4
Pattern-books 10.31, 14.95-96, 18.125-6, 128-129, 24.40, 27.161-5
Patterns, geometric 10.1-39, 27.142, 153-4, see also Geometric patterns
Patterns, next to door 2.68-9, 3.51, 5.21-22, 10.24, 34.73
Pavia cathedral 25.33,39
Paving 25.15,47-8
Payerne abbey 23.235
Payn fitz John 27.139, 33.123
Paynel, Ralph 31.98
Peakirk 10.24
Pearson, J. L., architect 11.5-7, 30.79, 81, 82, 84, 85, 87, 88, 90
Penmon priory 10,16,17
Pennington 10.9,10
Penselwood 7.8
Perdix (partridge moralised) 11.31-33,50-51, 27.147; 28.126
Perindeus tree 28.133
Philippe de Thaon 23. 226, 228, 25.36
Pigs 11.29-30
Pilgrims 3.42,51,53, 20.179,180-181
Pisces 11.33-4, 30.115
Piscina at Kirkstall abbey 34.76, 90-96
Pitsford tympanum 38
Portchester 10.13
Portrait 8.387, 25.26
Position of sculpture on building 29.145-56
Post-Conquest rebellion (1068) 35.28
Prayer 35.36,37,39,41,45, 39.172-5, 40.32
Prayer used at Coronation, Prospice 42.176-178
Prayer, inspired by God 34.94, 96
Preacher 25.29
Preachers 17.138-139,141-142,155, 25.45-7
Preaching, figured by blowing horn 29.146,152
Pre-Conquest conditions 36.123-4
Pre-Conquest sculpture 25.29, n.57, 39.170-75
Pruning 29.149,150,152
Psalm 1, Psalm 119 41.183, 185-7
Psalm 148 11.39-40, 28.135

Quadriga 33.108-111
Quenington 10.7,8,25, 27.154,159-160, 33.97-124

Ranulph le Meschines 36.123-4
Reading abbey (capital from) 33.101-3
Recording sculpture by tracing 5.19, 14.82
Redmarshall 10.24
Reform 42.164, 167 see also Gregorian reforms
Reining-in of desire 29.151
Relics 20.181
Representation of space 3.52-4
Rescue, see Battle
Restoration of church 30.79-90, 37
Resurrection bodies 12.68-69, 18.121-123,134-135, 22.54,55-60, 23.232-33, 236, 29.154, 31.113,121, 33.118-120
Resurrection, springtime 21.209-210, 29.150
Resurrection, theology of 23.230, 231, 232-33
Ribbesford, tympanum 28.131-2
Riccall 1.59-90, 10.19,25, 30.92, 98
Richmond castle, Yorkshire 42.165
Ridlington 10.12
Roade 10.25
Robert, earl of Gloucester 20.164-5,181
Rochester cathedral 10.19,21,22
Rock, Worcs. 19.69-72, 27.150, figs 14, 15, 29.150-52
Roger of Pont L’Eveque, archbishop 30.92-3
Roman models 21.204-205, 25.35-6, 27.152-3, 33.110-111, 35.43
Roman worked stone reused 20.166,177,181, 22.51, 25.14
Romanesque and Gothic 6.8, 19.55-56
Rome, emulated in Romanesque 5.24, 13.97-98, 20.166-167, 25.44,46
Rome, San Clemente 19.58-59
Rome, the Cathedra Petri 21.204
Romsey 10.24
Romsley 10.25
Rose window 34.75-6
Rotunda 10.21, 12.69-71, 23.215-239,225,233
Rule of St Benedict 34.72, 84, 85, 87-89, 96
Runestones 32.19-20, 31
Rushbury 10.21

Sacred kingship 42.177-9, 180-81
Sagittarius 23. 226
Saint Augustine of Hippo, depicted 11.13-14,48-49, 17.139-140, 19.71
Saint Augustine, see also Augustine, works of
Saint Bees, Cumbria 10.17
Saint Edith 30.77-8
Saint Eustace 25.22,24,38
Saint Gregory the Great, pope 22.57, 27.152-3
Saint Gregory, see also Gregory the Great, works of
Saint Margaret 36.123,130-1
Saint Martin of Tours (Marmoutier) 31.98
Saint Mary, the Virgin, 8.116-117, 19.54
Saint Marychurch, Devon 14.79-98
Saint Marychurch, Devon, font 12 40.19-45 passim
Saint Michael 10.9, 23.62-3, 33.117, 36.126,135-7
Saint Odo of Cluny, see Occupatio
Saint Paul 13.101,102
Saint Peter 5.27-9, 11.45-46, 30.115-17
Saint Peter and Saint Paul 1.83-4, 3.51, 13.107-108
Saint-Margaret-at-Cliffe, Kent 10.17,28-9
Salford Priors 10.21,22
Salisbury 29.145, 154
Saltire cross pattern 10.9
Salton 4.9, 10.25
Sandwich, St Clement 10.17,18
Sankt Lambrecht, Austria 7.8
Satan, the Devil 17.140-142,146, 31.111-3
Scale pattern (may depict roof) 10.20-21, 12.70-71
Scandinavia 35.31
Scots 36.123
Sculptor, see Craftsman
Sculpture for village churches 14.96, 15.19
Sculpture in wood 13.102,108-111
Second Coming, Judgment 11.25, 16.60-63, 19.60-61,62, 21.208, 30.105, 113-15, 31.101-2,104,121,128, 39.173-4
Sea monster 28.131-2
Self-control, -restraint 11.20-21, 17.154, 19.70-71, 29.150-55
Sènanque abbey 34.69, 84-5
Senses, spiritual, moral, literal 10.5,23-24, 21.207-208, 40.39-41
Seraphim 33.99
Serpent, see Snake
Shared designs 27.161,162-4
Sheelas 21.209
Sheep 11.30,34, 35.36,40,45
Sherburn in Herford Lythe 30.82-3,93
Shirburn 10.16,17
Shobdon/Wigmore priory 19.68
Shrewsbury, St Mary 10.8
Siddington 5.25-6, 10.25
Sin, Temptation 31.114-5
Sirens, see Mermaid
Smile 8.387, 12.73-4, 17.134-5, 27.144,154, 31.102,117,123,127
Snake, as Holy Spirit 32.30-1
Snake, dragon, as Death 10.11, 11.52-53
Snakes 27.147-153, 28.133, 29.148-55, 32.30,31, 34.92-6
Snakes, two-eyed 34.93-4
Snake, see also Wyvern
Soul 6.9, 19.61
Soul and body 25.35-6, 29.152
Soul, theology of, representation of 23.231, 232
South Cerney 27.158,159,160, 33.114-18,124
Southwell Minster 10.21,25
Spanish illuminations 16.63, 19.55
Speeton 39.171
Spiral volutes, as foliage 18.135, 25.20,31
Spirit, inspiration 27.152-3
Springtime, see also Resurrection 21.209-210
Stafford 35.28
Stanley Pontlarge 10.2,3,4
Stars 2.70,72-73, 10.5-8, 20.176, 21.208, 31.103-4
Stars, see also Firmament
Steetley 5.23, 7.11, 9.50-51,60
Step-pattern see Amendments to 10.23-5
Sticks 23.233 n.51
Stillingfleet 1.66, 6.11, 7.6, 18.136-137, 30.92,98
Sting, bite 31.n.56
Stoke Dry, column 28.123-5
Stoke sub Hamdon, tympanum 28.129-31
Stone, Bucks, font 38 passim
Stow Longa tympanum 25.33,36
Strata Florida abbey, west doorway 34.96
Street, G E, architect 31.98
Sturmer 10.5,6
Switzerland 23.217,235
Swynnerton 10.7,25
Sybil (Talbot) de Lacy 27.139, 33.123
Sykes family 30.79, 85
Symeon of Durham 25.45-8
Symmetry, visible order 6.12, 11.34-36, 12.68-69, 16.57,58, 19.57,63, 27.143, 36.131
Symmetry, see also Disorder

Tau crosier 25.33,36
Tau cross (capital) 25.20,22,38
Teaching 10.3, 28.127, 40.23-6,42 and passim
Temptation, Sin 31.114-5
Thorp Arch 10.14
Thorpe Arnold, font 28.133
Thorpe Salvin 4.13-15
Thorpe Salvin, font 13 40.19-45 passim
Three-dimensional 23.215
Throne of Wisdom 19.54-57
Throne, seat 33.99,108-111,116-17
Throne, see also Christ enthroned
Thurstan, archbishop 28.114
Thwaite St Mary 42.184
Thwing 10.24, 39.171
Tickencote 6.12, 31.128
Tickhill castle, Yorkshire 42.172-3
Tissington 10.10
Toller Fratrum 4.13, 10.11
Toller Fratrum, font 14 40.19-45 passim
Tongue, foliate 7.5-6,8-10
Torquay 14.79-98
Toseland 10.5,6
Tournai marble items 12.65-67, 31.128
Tower added to nave 36.125,126-7,137
Tower of London (White Tower) 25.42
Tower of London, see White Tower
Tracing 5.19, 14.82
Tree of Jesse 5.37-38,39
Tree of Knowledge 28.125, 139
Tree of Life 1.77, 3.55, 18.115, 19.57-60, 27.143, 28.135-9
Tree-alone, tympana of Dymock School 22.55,64
Tree-and-two-animals design 27.161, 164-5, fig 25
Tree-and-two-animals, tympana 19.58, 22.51-55,64
Trees 28.125-6,132,135-9,140-1
Trinity 2.70,71, 16.60-61, 19.63-66, 23.226-27,228, 31.106,7, 32.22,25-31, 36.133-5,136
Triquetra 32.25-7,30
Triumph of Christ 10.9, 19.65, 27.163, amendment. See also Ascension of Christ
Trousers, see Underwear
Tutbury 10.13, 18.138-140
Twywell 10.21,22
Tympana in Yorkshire 1.61
Tympana, schemes discussed 7.1-16, 19.51-76, 20.175,177, 22.51-72, 27.139-68, 29.145-56, 33.97-123, 36.123-40
Tympanum and voussoirs compared as fields for carving 1.75,77
Tympanum designated as heaven 10.12-17
Tympanum, Durham Castle chapel 25.11

Underwear 29.148-51
Universal themes 27.161, 162
Upleadon 7.8-9
Uta Codex 17.143-144, 23.232

Victorian architects and restorers 37
Victorines, see Hugh, Andrew, of St Victor
Vineyard 29.146,149-150
Vita Gundleii 20.passim
Vita Sancti Paterni 22.60,67
Vitruvius 23.230-231

Wales, near Sheffield 10.14,25
Wales, sculptural schemes in 20.163-185, 22.51-72
Wallingford 10.17
Walter de Pîtres, or Walter fitzRoger, or Roger of Gloucester, 33.124
Watchers 31.102,105
Water of Life 19.59-62
Water Stratford 10.19
Webb, Mary C. 38
Wechselburg, Germany 7.11
Wedding 33.111,120
Welsh clergy (secular canons, clas) 20.164
West doorway to nave 20.165-6,171; 36.136-7
Westhall, Suffolk 42.183
Westminster Hall 42.173, 183
Westow, Crucifixion carving 11.9,58-59
Whispering 27.153
Whitaker, T D, antiquarian 31.106-7
White Hall, Westminster 42.178
White Tower, London 42. 169-170
Wibert, prior (c.1152-1167) 41.183
Wighill 1.66,68-69, 31.127
William de Warenne III 9.55-59
William II, Rufus 42.173, 180, 181
William of St Calais, bishop of Durham 25.44-48
William of Volpiano 23.215-217,234
William the Conqueror 25.45, 42 passim
Wilton (Wilts) 30.78
Wilton (Yorks), see Bishop Wilton
Windows 33.102,116,118
Winter (earthly life) 29.150
Wisdom, Word, of God 19.55,59,62
Wise and Foolish Virgins 1.74-76, 3.49, 11.37-39, 16.58-59
Wold Newton 11.31-32
Wolf 17.136-139
Women involved 9.55-60, 25.38,40, 33.123-4
Wood working 13.102,108-111, 19.51
Wooden column shafts 27.144
Woolley 39.171-2
Worcester cathedral priory, chapterhouse 33.102-103,111,121-3
Wordwell 4.10-11, 27.164
Wrestlers, see also Fighters 2.73, 29.152, 40.25,31,33,34,38,39,40,42
Wyvern, snake or serpent as a positive spiritual entity 7.4-5, 9.53,55, 11.27, 12.68,69, 15.20-21, 17.129,130,132-133,134-136,145,157, 18.122-123, 19.61,70-71, 20.175, 22.55-60, 23.218,224,233, 25.29, 27.143, 29.154,155, 30.112-13, 31.113,119, 34.92-6

York, Holy Trinity Priory 16.64, 30.96-7, 31.98,100,115,127,129
York, St Margaret, Walmgate 10.23, 30.92, 98, 105
Yorkshire 1.59-90, 19.68-69,71
Yorkshire School 3.53-56, 5.38-39, 13.105-106, 16.56-57, 30.90-97
Yorkshire Wolds 11.3-11,56-8

Zodiac 40.27

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Offprints, downloads or read-on-line

The Yorkshire Archaeological and Historical Society (www.yas.org.uk) has announced that scanning has been completed of all 82 volumes of YAJ published up to 2010. They are now online, searchable, and available free of charge to everyone.  

Papers 1, 5, 9, 12, 13, 18 and 26, that is, all my Yorkshire Archaeological Journal papers to 2010, are on-line. Go to https://archive.org/details/yorkshirearchaeologicalandhistoricalsociety?sort=titleSorter


Paper 3 is also on-line on https://archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A”Wiltshire+Archaeological+and+Natural+History+Society”  Look through the cover images for volume 91 (1998).


Paper 7  is on-line at http://www.sanhs.org/documents/141/01Wood.pdf


Paper 8  can be downloaded as one short paper among several other ‘Researches’, from


Paper 14  is available as an offprint, e-mail dasmail@devonarchaeologicalsociety.org.uk.


Paper 24  is available to download from https://www.york.ac.uk/borthwick/publications/monastic-research-bulletin/


Paper 27   As at November 2017, there remained ten offprints of this article available for purchase. E-mail the society:  help@bucksas.org.uk


It is assumed that your local university library would have on-line access to national journals (papers 10, 23, 32 and 42) and would allow any serious enquirer to download the articles, or photocopy the actual journals.


There are articles which are not yet on-line or are in journals that are hard to find. I thank the holders of copyrights - societies, photographer-friends and co-authors - for permission for the following nine papers to be downloaded from this site:


Paper 2 first published by the Yorkshire Philosophical Society 


Paper 4 first published in Medieval Life (a magazine now sadly defunct)


Paper 6 first published in Medieval Life.
Figure 1 appears by courtesy of The Courtauld Institute of Art,
London/ photograph by the late Pamela Tudor-Craig. 


Paper 11 first published by the East Yorkshire Local History Society.
Plate 4b appears by courtesy of The Courtauld Institute of Art, London.


Paper 16 first published by the Yorkshire Philosophical Society 


Paper 19 first published by the Woolhope Naturalists’ Field Club


Paper 20 first published by the Cambrian Archaeological Association.
Figure 7 appears by courtesy of The Courtauld Institute of Art, London;
Figure 9 appears by courtesy of The Courtauld Institute of Art, London/ photograph by James Austin.


Paper 21 first published by the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society


Paper 22 first published by the Cambrian Archaeological Association


Recent papers available on-line


Paper 37  ‘Victorian Architects and the Romanesque’     (January 2019)
This article is on-line at http://www.victorianweb.org/art/architecture/romanesque/index.html  


Paper 38  Review of Mary Curtis Webb, Ideas and Images in Twelfth-century Sculpture   (April 2019)  Webb’s book is downloadable from www.bucksas.org.uk and other sites.

Paper 39 YAJ 2021, ‘A grave-marker at Kirby Hill, North Riding’ is downloadable from: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/MZRYVXNQDRSZ3X8RWVCU/full?target=10.1080/00844276.2021.1917898


In case of difficulty, please e-mail Rita Wood (Section 1).

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---   Site revised August 2023  ---